Epidemiology, Etiology, and Classification of Urothelial Tumors

  • H. Rübben
  • C. Hunold


Knowledge about the etiology and epidemiology of urothelial tumors provides a rationale for the selective use of urinary cytology in the screening of high-risk individuals and population groups.


Bladder Cancer Aromatic Amine Bladder Tumor Urinary Cytology Bladder Exstrophy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abeshouse BA (1943) Exstrophy of the bladder complicated by adenocarcinoma of the bladder and renal calculi. A report of a case and a review of the literature. J Urol 49: 259Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong B, Doll R (1974) Bladder cancer mortality in England and Wales in relation to cigarette smoking and saccharine consumption. Br J Prev Soc Med 28: 233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Augustine A, Hebert JR, Kabat GC, Wynder EL (1988) Bladder cancer in relation to cigarette smoking. Cancer Res 48: 4405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bejany DE, Lockardt JL, Rhamy RK (1987) Malignant vesical tumors following spinal cord injury. J Urol 138: 1390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyland E, Williams DC (1956) The metabolism of tryptophan. Biochem J 64: 578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyland E, Kinder CH, Manson D (1960) Effect of 1.4-saccharinolactone on induction of bladder cancer. Ann Rep Br Emp Cancer Campaign 38: 45Google Scholar
  7. Boyland E, Wallace DM, Avis PRD, Kinder CH (1964) Attempted prophylaxis of bladder cancer with 1.4-glucosaccharolactone. Br J Urol 36: 563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown RR, Price JM, Satter EJ, Wear JB (1969) Tryptophan metabolism in patients with bladder cancer. Geographical differences. J NCI 43: 295Google Scholar
  9. Byar D, Blackard C (1977) Comparisons of placebo, pyridoxine and topical thiotepa in preventing recurrence of stage 1 bladder cancer. Urology 10(6): 556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cartwright RA, Glashan RW, Rogers HJ, Ahmad RA, Barham-Hall D, Higgins E, Kahn MA (1982) Role of N-acetyltransferase phenotypes in bladder carcinogenesis: a pharmacogenetic epidemiology approach to bladder cancer. Lancet 2: 842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Case RAM, Pearson JT (1954) Tumours of the urinary bladder in workmen engaged in the manufacture and use of certain dyestuff intermediates in the British chemical industry. Part II; Further consideration of the role of aniline and of the manufacture of auramine and magenta (fuchsine) as possible causative agents. Br J Ind Med 11: 213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Case RAM, Hosker ME, McDonald DB, Pearson JT (1954) Tumours of the urinary bladder in workmen engaged in the manufacture and use of certain dyestuff intermediates in the British chemical industry. Br J Ind Med 11: 75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Clayson DB (1974) Bladder carcinogenesis in rats and mice: possibility of artifacts. J Natl Cancer Inst 52: 1685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Clayson DB, Cooper EH (1970) Cancer of the urinary tract. Adv Cancer Res 13: 271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen SM, Arai A, Jacobs JB, Friedeil GH (1979) Promoting effects of saccharin and DL-tryptophan in urinary carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 39: 1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cole P (1971) Coffee-drinking and cancer of the lower urinary tract. Lancet 1: 1335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cole P (1973) A population based study of bladder cancer. In: Doll R, Vodopija I (eds) Host environmental interactions in the aetiology of cancer in main. IARC Scientific Publication, International Agency for Research of Cancer, Lyon 7: 83Google Scholar
  18. Cramer JW, Miller JA, Miller EC (1960) N-hydroxylation: A new metabolic reaction observed in the rath with the carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorine. J Biochem Chem 235: 885Google Scholar
  19. Cutler SJ, Young JL (eds) (1975) Third national cancer survey: incidence data. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 41:1Google Scholar
  20. Duesberg PH (1983) Retroviral transforming genes in normal cells? Nature 304: 219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duncan RE, Ennet DW, Evans AT, Aron BS, Schellhas HF (1977) Radiation induced bladder tumours. J Urol 118: 43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dunning WF, Curtis MR, Maun ME (1950) The effect of added dietary tryptophan on the occurence of 2-acetylaminofluorine induced liver and bladder cancer in rats. Cancer Res 10: 454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ekman B, Strombeck JP (1947) Demonstration of tumorgenic decomposition products of 2.3-azotuolene. Acta Physiol Scand 14: 43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Engel RME, Wilkinson HA (1970) Bladder exstrophy. J Urol 104: 699 [1970]Google Scholar
  25. Fairchild WV, Spence CR, Solomon HD, Gangai MP (1979) The incidence of bladder cancer after cyclophosphamide therapy. J Urol 122: 163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Friedlander E, Morrison AS (1981) Urinary tryptophan metabolites and cancer of the bladder in humans. J Natl Cancer Inst 67: 347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gonwa TA, Corbett WT, Schey HM, Buckalew VM (1980) Analgesic associated nephropathy and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract. Ann Intern Med 93: 249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Harzmann R, Gericke D, Altenahr E, Bichler K-H (1980) Induction of a transplantable urinary bladder carcinoma in dogs. Invest Urol 18: 24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hawksworth GM, Hill MJ (1971) Bacteria and the N-nitrosation of secondary amines. Br J Cancer 25: 520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hawksworth GM, Hill MJ (1974) The vivo formation of N-nitrosamines in the rat bladder and their subsequent absorption. Br J Cancer 29: 353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hecht SS, Tso TC, Hoffmann D (1976) Selective reduction of tumorgenicity of tobacco smoke. IV Approaches to the reduction of N-nitrosamines and aromatic amines. Proceedings of third world conference on smoking and health. Dept Health Education and Welfare Publ (NIH) 76: 535Google Scholar
  32. Hermanek P, Scheibe O, Spiessl B, Wagner G (eds) (1987) TNM-Klassifikation maligner Tumoren, 4th edn. UICC — International Union Against Cancer. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Hicks RM, Walters CL, El Sebai I, El Asser AB, El Merzabani M, Grough TA (1977) Demonstration of nitrosamines in human urine. Preliminary observations on a possible aetiology for bladder cancer in association with chronic urinary tract infection. Proc R Soc Med 70: 413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hicks RM, Chowaniec J, Wakefield JStJ (1978) Experimental induction of bladder tumours by a two-stage system. In: Slaga TJ, Sivak A, Boutwell RK (eds) Carcinogenesis, mechanisms of tumour promotion and carcinogenesis. Raven, New York 2: 475Google Scholar
  35. Hirayama T (1979) Diet and cancer. Nutr Cancer 1: 67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoffmann D, Masuda Y, Wynder EL (1969) Alpha-naphthylamine and beta-naphthylamine in cigarette smoke. Nature 221: 254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Howe GR, Burch JD, Miller AB (1977) Artificial sweeteners and human bladder cancer. Lancet 2: 578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hueper WC, Wiley FH, Wolfe HD (1938) Experimental production of bladder tumours in dogs by administration of beta-naphthylamine. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 20(1): 46Google Scholar
  39. IARC (1980) Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Some non-nutritive sweetening agents. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, p 22Google Scholar
  40. Kadlubar FF, Miller JA, Miller EC (1978) Guanyl O6-arylamination and O6arylation of DNA by the carcinogen N-hydroxy-1-naphthylamine. Cancer Res 38: 3628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaufman JM, Fam B, Jacobs SC, Gabilondo F, Yalla S, Kane JP, Rossier AB (1977) Bladder cancer and squamous metaplasia in spinal cord injury patients. J Urol 118: 967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kunze E, Calude J, Frentzel-Beyme R (1986) Association of cancer of the lower urinary tract with consumption of alcoholic beverages — a case control study. Carcinogenesis 7: 163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lower GM (1982) Concepts in causality: chemically induced human bladder cancer. Cancer 49: 1056PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Malone WF, Kelloff GJ, Pierson H, Greenwald P (1987) Chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Cancer 60: 650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Melick WF, Naryka JJ, Kelly RE (1971) Bladder cancer due to exposure to para-aminobiphenyl: a 17 year follow up. J Urol 106: 220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Morgan RW, Jain MG (1974) Bladder cancer: smoking, beverages and artifical sweeteners. Can Med Assoc J 111: 1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Morrison AS, Cole P (1976) Epidemiology of bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 3: 13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Morrison AS, Cole P (1982) Urinary tract. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni FJ, Saunders WB (eds) Cancer epidemiology and prevention. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 925Google Scholar
  49. Morrison AS, Buring JE, Verhoek WG, Aoki K, Leck I, Ohno Y, Obata K (1982) Coffee drinking and cancer of the lower urinary tract. J Natl Cancer Inst 68: 91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ohkawa T, Fujinaga T, Doi J, Ebisuno S, Takamatsu M, Nakamura J, Kido R (1982) Clinical study on occupational uroepithelial cancer in Wakayama City. J Urol 128: 520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Olson CA, Vere White RW de (1979) Cancer of the bladder. In: Javadpour N (ed) Principles and management of urologic cancer. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, p 337Google Scholar
  52. Pamukcu AM, Erturk E, Yalciner S, Bryan GT (1976) Histogenesis of urinary bladder cancer induced in rats by bracken fern. Invest Urol 14: 213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Patrianakos C, Hoffman D (1979) Chemical studies on to bacco smoke. LXIV On the analysis of aromatic amines in cigarette smoke. J Anal Toxicol 3: 150Google Scholar
  54. Pearson RM, Soloway MS (1978) Does cyclophosphamide induce bladder cancer? Urology 4: 437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Petkovic S, Multavdzic M, Petronic V, Marcovic V (1971) Tumours of the renal pelvis and ureter: clinical and aetiologic studies. J Urol Nephrol (Paris) 77: 429Google Scholar
  56. Pott P (1775) Cancer scroti. In: Chirurgical works. Howes Clark & Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Price JM, Brown RR, Ellis ME (1965) Quantitative studies on the urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites by human ingesting a constant diet. J Nutr 60: 323Google Scholar
  58. Radomski JL, Brill E (1970) Bladder cancer induction by aromatic amines: role of N-hydroxy metabolites. Science 167: 992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Radomski JL, Greenwald D, Hearn WL, Block NL, Woods FM (1978) Nitrosamine formation in bladder infections and its role in the etiology of bladder cancer. J Urol 120: 48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Rathert P, Melchior HJ, Lutzeyer W (1975) Phenacetin: a carcinogen for the urinary tract. J Urol 113: 653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Reddy EP, Reynolds RK, Santos E, Barbacid M (1982) A point mutation is responsible for the acquisition of transforming properties by the T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene. Nature 300: 149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rehn L (1895) Blasengeschwülste bei Fuchsin-Arbeitern. Arch Klin Chir 50: 588Google Scholar
  63. RUTTAC (Registry for urinary tract tumours RWTH Aachen) (1981) Arbeitssitzung und Jahresbericht des ‘Register und Verbundstudie für Harnwegstumoren RWTH Aachen’. Verh Dtsch Ges Urol 33: 559Google Scholar
  64. Sakashita SH, Matsuda H, Nagamori S, Sakakibara N, Maru A, Koyanagi T (1988) Papillary adenoma of the bladder in a patient with intermittent self-catheterization. Urol Int 43: 107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Samma SH, Homma Y, Oyasu R (1987) Rat urinary bladder denuded of urothelium. Am J Pathol 128: 328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sattler TA, Dimitrov T, Hall PW (1977) Relation between endemic (Balkan) nephropathy and urinary tract tumours. Lancet 2: 278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schulte PA, Ringen K, Hemstreet GP, Altekruse EB, Gullen WH, Tillett S, Allsbrook WC et al. (1986) Risk factors for bladder cancer in a cohort exposed to aromatic amines. Cancer 58: 2156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tabin CJ, Bradley SM, Bargmann CI, Weinberg RA, Papageorge AG, Scolnick EM, Dhar R et al. (1982) Mechanism of activation of a human oncogene. Nature 300: 143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. UICC (International Union Against Cancer) (1978) TNM classification of malignant tumors. UICC, GenfGoogle Scholar
  70. Weinberg DM, Ross RK, Mack TM, Paganini-Hill A, Henderson BE (1983) Bladder cancer etiology. A different perspective. Cancer 51: 675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. WHO (World Health Organization) (1973) International histological classification of tumors, histological typing of urinary bladder tumors. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  72. Wolf H, Kakizoe T, Smith PH, Brosman SA, Okajima E, Rübben H, Utz DC (1986) Bladder tumors — treated natural history. In: Denis L, Niijima T, Prout G Jr, Schröder FH (eds) Developments in bladder cancer. Liss, New York, p 221–223Google Scholar
  73. Wynder EL, Goldsmith R (1977) The epidemiology of bladder cancer: a second look. Cancer 40: 1246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yess N, Price JM, Brown RR, Swann PB, Linkswiler H (1964) Vitamin B6 depletion in man: urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites. J Nutr 84: 229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Yura Y, Hayashi O, Kelly M, Oyasu R (1989) Identification of epidermal growth factor as a component of the rat urinary bladder tumor-enhancing urinary fractions. Cancer Res 49: 1548PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Rübben
  • C. Hunold

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations