The Lipolytic Enzymes of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Fat Digestion
In the chemical and physical form that dietary fat is consumed it is not available for uptake by the gastrointestinal tract. By enzymatic conversion and in the presence of bile salt, dietary fat is converted to a more hydrophilic form that allows efficient uptake in the proximal part of the small intestine. While it was previously thought that the lipase of pancreatic origin, the classical lipase, was responsible for the digestion of the main part of the dietary fat, it has become apparent in recent years that other enzymes are also of importance and that lipolysis in the gastro-intestinal tract results from the concerted effect of three lipases and a phospholipase. These are gastric lipase, classical pancreatic lipase, carboxyl ester lipase (also of pancreatic origin), and the phospholipase A2 secreted into the pancreatic juice. It has also been demonstrated that classical lipase action in duodenal contents is dependent on a protein co-factor named colipase.
KeywordsCholesterol Fermentation Lipase Streptomyces Triglyceride
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bernbäck S (1989) Gastric lipase and the sequential digestion of human milk fat. Umeå University Medical Dissertation, no 2423Google Scholar
- Borgström B (1964) Hydrolysis and synthesis of glyceride ester bonds catalyzed by pancreatic lipase. Biochim Biophys Acta 84:228–230Google Scholar
- Borgström B (1980) Importance of phospholipids, pancreatic phospholipase A2 and fatty acid for the digestion of dietary fat. In vitro experiments with the porcine enzymes. Gastroenterology 78:954–962Google Scholar
- Borgström B, Brockman HL (eds) (1984) Lipases. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Hamosh M (1984) Lingual lipase. In: Borgström B, Brockman HL (eds) Lipases. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 49–82Google Scholar
- Hernell O, Bläckberg L (1982) Digestion of human milk lipids, physiological significance of sn-2 monoacylglycerol hydrolysis by bile salt stimulated lipase; Pediatr Res 27:882–885Google Scholar
- Kozumplik V, Staffa F, Hoffmann GE (1988) Purification of pancreatic phospholipase A2 from human duodenal juice. Biochim Biophys Acta 1002:395–397Google Scholar
- Rudd EA, Brockman HL (1984) Pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase. In: Borgström B, Brockman HL (eds) Lipases. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 185–204Google Scholar
- Volhard F (1901) Uber das Fettspaltende Ferment des Magens. Z Klin Med 42: 414–429Google Scholar