The Role of Essential Fatty Acids in Gastric and Duodenal Protection and Ulcer Therapy

  • D. Hollander
  • A. Tarnawski
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 99)


Cytoprotection has been defined as the ability of pharmacological agents to prevent or reduce gastric, duodenal, or intestinal mucosal injury produced by a variety of agents without affecting intragastric acidity. Prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to protect the gastric mucosa against (a) ulcerogenic insults by aspirin, indomethacin, bile acids, serotonin, and restraint, and (b) damage produced by necrotizing agents such as absolute alcohol, boiling water, 0.6 N HCl, 0.2 N NaOH, and overdistention (Robert at al. 1979, 1984; Tarnawski 1980; Miller 1983; Marti-Bonmati et al. 1980). A demonstration of cytoprotection is the oral or subcutaneous pretreatment of experimental animals (Robert et al. 1979, 1884; Tarnawski 1980) with a small amount of synthetic or natural PGs prior to the insult, which significantly reduces or even completely prevents mucosal necrosis after exposure to absolute alcohol, boiling water, or other noxious factors.


Linoleic Acid Arachidonic Acid Gastric Mucosa Essential Fatty Acid Dietary Fatty Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bakhle YS (1983) Synthesis and catabolism of cyclo-oxygenase products. Br Med Bull 39:214–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chow SL, Hollander D (1978) Arachidonic acid intestinal absorption: Mechanism of transport and influence of luminal factors on absorption in vitro, Lipids 11:768–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chow SL, Hollander D (1979a) Linoleic acid absorption in the unanesthetized rat: mechanism of transport and influence of luminal factors on absorption rate. Lipids 14:378–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chow SL, Hollander D (1979b) A dual, concentration-dependent absorption mechanism of linoleic acid by rat jejunum in vitro. J Lipid Res 20:349–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gali C, Agrandi E, Petroni A, Tremoli E (1980) Dietary essential fatty acid, tissue fatty acids and Prostaglandin synthesis. Prog Fd Nutr Sci 4:1–7.Google Scholar
  6. Grant HW, Palmer KR, Kelly RW, Wilson NH, Misiewicz JJ (1988) Dietary linoleic acid gastric acid and Prostaglandin secretion. Gastroenterology 94:955–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hollander D, Tarnawski A (1986a) Dietary essential fatty acids and the decline in peptic ulcer disease — a hypothesis. Gut 27:239–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hollander D, Tarnawski A (1986b) Dietary essential fatty acids and peptic ulcer disease (letter to the editor). Gut 27:1108–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hollander D, Tarnawski A, Ivey KJ, DeZeery A, Zipser RD, McKenzie WN (1982) Arachidonic acid protection of rat gastric mucosa against ethanol injury. J Lab Clin Med 100:296–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hollander D, Dadufalza VD, Sletten EG (1984) Does essential fatty acid absorption change with aging? J Lipid Res 25:129–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Konturek JS, Pawlik W (1986) Physiology and pharmacology of Prostaglandins. Dig Dis Sci[Feb Suppl] 31:6s–19s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Marti-Bonmati E, Alino SF, Loris JM et al. (1980) Effects of cimetidine, atropine and Prostaglandin E2 on rat mucosal erosions produced by intragastric distension. Eur J Pharmacol 68:48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Miller T (1983) Protective effects of Prostaglandins against gastric mucosal damage: current knowledge and proposed mechanisms. Am J Physiol 245:G601–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Nilsson A, Melin T (1988) Absorption and metabolism of orally fed arachidonic and linoleic acid in the rat. Am J Physiol 255:G612–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Rainford KD (1978) The role of aspirin in gastric ulceration. Some factors involved in the development of gastric mucosal damage induced by aspirin in rats exposed to various stress conditions. Am J Digest Dis 23:521–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rainford KD, Fox SA, Osborne DJ (1984) Comparative effects of some non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the ultrastructural integrity and Prostaglandin levels in the gastric mucosa. Relationship to drug uptake. Scand J Gastroenteroll (Suppl 101) 19:55–68.Google Scholar
  17. Ramwell PW (1981) Biologic importance of arachidonic acid. Arch Int Med 141:275–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Redfern JS, Feldman M (1989) Role of endogenous Prostaglandins in preventing gastrointestinal ulceration: induction of ulcers by antibodies to Prostaglandins. Gastroenterology 96:596–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Redfern JS, Blair AJ, Lee E, Feldman M (1987) Gastrointestinal ulcer formation in rabbits immunized with Prostaglandin E2. Gastroenterology 93:744–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rizek RL, Welsh SO, Marston RM (1984) Levels and sources of fat in the US food supply and in diets of individuals. In: Milner J, Perkins EG (eds) Cancer — a molecular event. American oil Chemists’ society.Google Scholar
  21. Robert A, Nezamis JE, Lancaster C, Hanchar AJ (1979) Cytoprotection by Prostaglandins in rats. Prevention of gastric necrosis produced by alcohol, HCl, NaOH, hypertonic NaCl and thermal injury. Gastroenterology 77:433–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Robert A, Lancaster C, Davis JP et al. (1984) Distinction between antiulcer effect and cytoprotection. Scand J Gastroenterol (Suppl 101) 19:69–72.Google Scholar
  23. Robins PG (1980) Ultrastructural observations on the pathogenesis of aspirin induced gastric erosions. Br J Exp Pathol 61:497–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Schepp W, Steffen B, Ruoff HJ, Schusdziarra V, Classen M (1988) Modulation of rat gastric mucosal Prostaglandin E2 release by dietary linoleic acid: effects on gastric acid secretion and stress-induced mucosal damage. Gastroenterology 95:18–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Szabo S, Trier JS, Brown A, Schnoor J (1985) Early vascular injury and increased vascular permeability in gastric mucosal injury caused by ethanol in the rat. Gastroenterology 88:228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Tarnawski A (1980) Cytoprotection. A new fashion or real progress? Pol Arch Med Weswn 64:97–104.Google Scholar
  27. Tarnawski A, Hollander D, Stachura J, Krause WJ (1983) Arachidonic acid protection of gastric mucosa against alcohol injury: sequential analysis of morphologic and functional changes. J Lab Clin Med 102:340–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Tarnawski A, Hollander D, Stachura J et al. (1985a) Prostaglandin protection of the gastric mucosa against alcohol injury — dynamic time related process. The role of the mucosal proliferative zone. Gastroenterology 89:366–374.Google Scholar
  29. Tarnawski A, Hollander D, Stachura J (1985b) Ultrastructural changes in the gastric mucosal microvessels after ethanol. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 9(12 bis):93–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Tarnawski A, Brzozowski T, Hollander et al. (1986a) Prostaglandin protection of isolated human gastric glands against ethanol-induced injury. Evidence for cytoprotection in vitro (abstract). Gastroenterology 90:1658.Google Scholar
  31. Tarnawski A, Hollander D, Stachura J, Dadufalza V, Gergely H (1986b) Is arachidonic acid protected gastric mucosa more resistant to rechallenge with a second dose of ethanol? Klin Wochenschr 64:35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Tarnawski A, Hollander D, Gergely H (1987) Protection of gastric mucosa by linoleic acid — a nutrient essential fatty acid. Clin Invest Med 10:132–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Tarnawski A, Hollander D, Stachura J, Gergely H (1988a) Essential fatty acids — arachidonic and linoleic have trophic and angiogenic effect on the gastric mucosa injured by alcohol. Gastroenterology 94:A455.Google Scholar
  34. Tarnawski A, Stachura J, Gergely H, Hollander D (1988b) Microvascular endothelium — a major target for alcohol injury of the human gastric mucosa. Histochemical and ultrastructural study. J Clin Gastroenterol 10(1):554–564.Google Scholar
  35. Tarnawski A, Hollander D, Stachura J, Krause WJ, Gergely H (1989a) Protection of the gastric mucosa against aspirin injury by arachidonic acid — a dietary Prostaglandin precursor fatty acid. Eur J Clin Invest 19:278–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tarnawski A, Hollander D, Stachura J, Sarfeh IJ, Gergely H, Krause WJ (1989) Angiogenic response of gastric mucosa to ethanol injury is abolished by indomethacin. Gastroenterology 96:A505.Google Scholar
  37. Vane JR, Moncada S (1979) Polyunsaturated fatty acids as precursors of prostaglandins. Acta Cardiol [Suppl] (Brux) 23:21–37.Google Scholar
  38. Whittle BJR (1977) Mechanisms underlying gastric mucosal damage induced by indomethacin and bile salts and the actions of Prostaglandins. Br J Pharmacol 60:455–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Whittle BJR, Vane JR (1986) Prostanoids as regulators of gastrointestinal function. In: Johnson LR (ed) Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, 2nd edn. Raven, New York, pp 147–180.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Hollander
  • A. Tarnawski

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations