Atomic Scale Surface Characterization with Photoemission of Adsorbed Xenon (PAX)

  • K. Wandelt
Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 22)

Abstract

The physical and chemical properties of solid surfaces are strongly influenced — if not dominated — by structural and chemical heterogeneities. For example, structural surface defects like steps, kinks and vacancies act as heterogeneous nucleation centers and thereby affect the growth mode and the final structure of epitaxial films and adsorbed gas layers. Chemical defects like heteroatoms are the origin of local surface structure modifications or may even trigger structural phase transitions and surface reconstruction. Both surface topography and composition are decisive parameters for the chemical reactivity and catalytic activity of solid surfaces. Surface defects and dopants (heteroatoms) create surface states in the band gap of semiconductors, which in turn determine the electronic properties of semiconductor devices. A full understanding of all kinds of surface properties and surface processes ultimately requires a characterization of real surfaces on an atomic scale. A Kossel model of a real surface is depicted in Fig. 13.1, showing schematically a binary surface with several kinds of structural defects.

Keywords

Argon Recombination Catalysis Titration Hexagonal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 13.1
    W. Telieps, E. Bauer: Surf. Sci. 162, 163 (1985), see also E. Bauer in this volumeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 13.2
    Consult the journal “Ultramicroscopy” for high-resolution electron microscopy work; see also D.J. Smith in Vol. VI of this seriesGoogle Scholar
  3. 13.3
    H. Bethge, Th. Krajewski, O. Lichtenberg: Ultramicroscopy 17, 21 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 13.4
    G. Binnig, H. Rohrer: Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. G. Binnig, H. Rohrer: Surf. Sci. 152/153, 17 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 13.5
    RJ. Behm, W. Hösier: in: Physics and Chemistry of Solid Surfaces VI, ed. by R. Vanselow and R. Howe (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1986)Google Scholar
  7. 13.6
    IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 30, No. 4+5 (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 13.7
    E.W. Müller, T.T. Tsong: “Field Ion Microscopy” (Elsevier, New York 1969)Google Scholar
  9. 13.8
    K. Wandelt: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 802 (1984)Google Scholar
  10. 13.9
    K. Wandelt: in Thin Metal Films and Gas Chemisorption, ed. by P. Wissmann (Elsevier, Amsterdam 1987) p. 280–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. K. Wandelt: Progr. Surf. Sci., in preparationGoogle Scholar
  12. 13.11
    K. Wandelt, J. Hülse: J. Chem. Phys. 80, 1340 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.12
    RJ. Behm, C.R. Brundle, K. Wandelt: J. Chem. Phys. 85, 1061 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.13
    K. Markert, P. Pervan, W. Heichler, K. Wandelt: Surf. Sci. 211/212, 611 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 13.14
    J.W. Gadzuk, S. Holloway, C. Mariani, K. Horn: Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1288 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 13.15
    K. Horn, M. Scheffler, A.M. Bradshaw: Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 822 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 13.16
    M. Scheffler, K. Horn, A.M. Bradshaw, K. Kambe: Surf. Sci. 80, 69 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 13.17
    T. Mandel: PhD-Thesis, Free University Berlin, 1985Google Scholar
  19. 13.18
    A. Cassuto, JJ. Ehrhardt, J. Cousty, R. Riwan: Surf. Sci. 194, 579 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 13.19
    BJ. Waclawski, J.F. Herbst: Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1594 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 13.20
    RJP. Antoniewicz: Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 374 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 13.21
    S.I. Ishi, Y. Ohno: J. Electron Spectr. 33, 85 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 13.22
    A. Jablonski, S. Eder, K. Markert, K. Wandelt: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A4, 1510 (1986)Google Scholar
  24. 13.23
    S. Eder, K. Markert, A. Jablonski, K. Wandelt: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 90, 825 (1986)Google Scholar
  25. 13.24
    D.W. Turner, C. Baker, D.A. Baker, C.R. Brundle: “Molecular Photoelectron Spectroscopy” (Wiley-Interscience, New York 1970)Google Scholar
  26. 13.25
    J.W. Gadzuk: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 289 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 13.26
    A. Cassuto, JJ. Ehrhardt: J. Phys. France 49, 1753 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 13.27
    K. Hermann, J. Noffke, K. Horn: Phys. Rev. B22, 1022 (1980)Google Scholar
  29. 13.28
    K. Kern, R. David, RX. Palmer, G. Comsa: Appi. Phys. A41, 91 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 13.29
    K. Kern: Phys. Rev. B35, 8265 (1987)Google Scholar
  31. 13.30
    K. Kern, R. David, P. Zeppenfeld, R. Palmer, G. Comsa: Solid State Commun. 62,391 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 13.31
    K. Kern, R. David, P. Zeppenfeld, G. Comsa: Surf. Sci. 195, 353 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 13.32
    G. Kaindl, T.-C. Chiang, D.E. Eastman, FJ. Himpsel: Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1808 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. G. Kaindl, T.-C. Chiang, D.E. Eastman, FJ. Himpsel: and in: “Ordering in Two Dimensions”, ed. by Sinha (Elsevier, Amsterdam 1980) p. 99Google Scholar
  35. 13.33N.D. Lang: private communicationGoogle Scholar
  36. 13.34
    N.D. Lang, W. Kohn: Phys. Rev. B3, 1215 (1971)Google Scholar
  37. 13.35
    N.D. Lang, A.R. Williams: Phys. Rev. B25, 2940 (1982)Google Scholar
  38. 13.36
    N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 842 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 13.37
    K. Kalki, B. Pennemann, K. Wandelt, B. Eisenhut, Ch. Schug, J. Stober, W. Steinmann, W. Heichler: BESSY-Report, 1989Google Scholar
  40. 13.38
    J.E. Demuth, WJ. Thompson, HJ. DiNardo, R. Imbihl: Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1408 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 13.39
    K. Markert: PhD-Thesis, Free University Berlin, 1988Google Scholar
  42. K. Markert, P. Pervan, K. Wandelt: Phys. Rev. Lett., submittedGoogle Scholar
  43. 13.41
    J. Küppers, K. Wandelt, G. Erti: Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 928 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 13.42
    J. Küppers, H. Michel, F. Nitschke, K. Wandelt, G. Erti: Surf. Sci. 89, 361 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 13.43
    J. Hülse, J. Küppers, K. Wandelt, G. Erti: Appi. Surf. Sci. 6, 453 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 13.44
    K. Markert, K. Wandelt: Surf. Sci. 159, 24 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 13.45
    A. Jablonski, S. Eder, K. Wandelt: Appi. Surf. Sci. 22/23, 309 (1985)Google Scholar
  48. 13.46
    K.S. Kim, J.H. Sinfelt, S. Eder, K. Markert, K. Wandelt: J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2337 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 13.47
    Th. Berghaus, Ch. Lunau, H. Neddermeyer, V. Rogge: Surf. Sci. 182, 13 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 13.48
    M. Alnot, V. Gorodetskii, A. Cassuto, J.J. Ehrhardt: Surf. Sci. 162, 886 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. M. Alnot, V. Gorodetskii, A. Cassuto, J.J. Ehrhardt: Thin Solid Films 151, 251 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 13.49
    D. Fargues, J. J. Ehrhardt, M. Abon, J.C. Bertolini: Surf. Sci. 194, 149 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 13.50
    K. Wandelt, K. Markert, P. Dolle, A. Jablonski, J.W. Niemantsverdriet: Surf. Sci. 189/190, 114 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 13.51
    K. Markert, P. Dolle, J.W. Niemantsverdriet, K. Wandelt: J. Vac. Sci. Technok A5, 2849 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 13.52
    K. Wandelt, J.W. Niemantsverdriet, P. Dolle, K. Markert: Surf. Sci. 213, 612 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 13.53
    J.W. Niemantsverdriet, K. Wandelt: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A7, 1742 (1989)Google Scholar
  57. 13.54
    WMM. Sachtler: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 828 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 13.55
    H. Wagner: in Springer Tracts in Modem Physics, Vol. 85 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1979)Google Scholar
  59. 13.56
    RJ. Behm, W. Hösler, E. Ritter, G. Binnig: Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 228 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 13.57
    R. Miranda, S. Daiser, K. Wandelt, G. Erti: Siirf. Sci. 131, 61 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 13.58
    S. Daiser: MS-Thesis, University of München, 1981Google Scholar
  62. 13.59
    P.W. Palmberg: Surf. Sei. 25, 598 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 13.60
    J. Küppers, U. Seip: Surf. Sei. 119, 291 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 13.61
    J. Küppers, F. Nitschke, K. Wandelt, G. Ertl: Surf. Sei. 87, 295 (1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 13.62
    R. Smoluchowski: Phys. Rev. 60, 661 (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 13.63
    K. Besocke, H. Wagner: Surf. Sei. 52, 653 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 13.64
    K. Besocke, H. Wagner: Phys. Rev. B8, 4597 (1973)Google Scholar
  68. 13.65
    K. Wandelt, J. Hülse, J. Küppers: Surf. Sei. 104, 212 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 13.66
    A. Clarke, P J. Rous, M. Arnott, G. Jennings, R.F. Willis: Surf. Sei. 192, L843 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. W. Dürr, R. Germar, D. Pescia, M. Taborelli, O. Paul, M. Landolt: to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  71. 13.68
    M. Taborelli, R. Allenspach, G. Boffa, M. Landolt: Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2869 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 13.69
    K. Christmann, G. Ertl, H. Shimizu: J. Catal. 61, 397 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 13.70
    C.H.F. Peden, D.W. Goodman: in Catalyst Characterization Science: Surface and Solid State Chemistry, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC, 1985; ACS Symp. Ser. No. 288, p. 185Google Scholar
  74. 13.71
    B. Konrad, MS-Thesis, University of München, 1984Google Scholar
  75. 13.72
    B. Konrad, FJ. Himpsel, W. Steinmann, K. Wandelt: in: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Surface Structure Determination by LEED and Other Methods, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, F.R.G., 1985, p. 109Google Scholar
  76. 13.73
    J.W. Niemantsverdriet, P. Dolle, K. Markert, K. Wandelt: J. Vac. Sei. Technol. A4,875 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 13.74P. Dolle, K. Markert, J.W. Niemantsverdriet, K. Wandelt: unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  78. 13.75U. Schneider, H. Isem, M. Stöcker, G.R. Castro, K. Wandelt: in preparationGoogle Scholar
  79. 13.76
    A.R. Miedema, J.WJF. Dorleijn, Surf. Sei. 95, 447 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 13.77
    P. Hultgren, R.L. Orr, P.D. Anderson, K.K. Kelley: in “Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metalls and Alloys” (Wiley, New York 1963), p. 341Google Scholar
  81. 13.78
    B. Gumhalter, K. Hermann, K. Wandelt: Vacuum, in press; Phys. Rev. Lett., submittedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Wandelt
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische ChemieUniversität BonnBonn 1Fed.Rep.of Germany

Personalised recommendations