Reaction Patterns of Lymph Nodes in the Development and Spread of Cancer

  • E. Vollmer
  • V. Krieg
  • F. Shimamoto
  • E. Grundmann
Part of the Current Topics in Pathology book series (CT PATHOLOGY, volume 84/2)


Lymph nodes represent the most important component of the peripheral immune system. Beyond their role as a passive filter, they play an active part in immunological defense and exert a barrier function during the spread of malignant neoplasia (Meyer et al. 1980; Grundmann 1984; Grundmann and Vollmer.1985; Vollmer and Meyer 1986). Reactive histological changes in the nodes may be interpreted as morphological correlates of the various functional immunostages. Although the extent and effectiveness of such reactions are still under discussion, they definitely play a role in the complex immunological interactions between the tumor and the host organism (Meyer and Grundmann 1982; Siegel 1985).


Lymph Node Gastric Carcinoma Germinal Center Reaction Pattern Tumor Cell Injection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barclay AN (1981) The localization of populations of lymphocytes defined by monoclonal antibodies in rat lymphoid tissues. Immunology 42: 593–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertschmann M, Markwalder-Hartenbach R, Pedrinis E, Hess MW, Cottier H (1984) Proliferative patterns of lymphocytes in lymph nodes during tumour development: involvement of T and B cell areas. Br J Cancer 49: 477–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black MM, Speer FD (1958) Sinus histiocytosis of lymph nodes in cancer. Surg Gynecol Obstet 106:163–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Black MM, Opler SR, Speer FD (1954) Microscopic structure of gastric carcinomas and their regional lymph nodes in relation to survival. Surg Gynecol Obstet 98: 725–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brynes RK, Hunter RL, Vellios F (1983) Immunomorphologic changes in regional lymph nodes associated with cancer. Arch Pathol Lab Med 107: 217–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Burnet FM (1970) The concept of immunological surveillance. Prog Exp Tumor Res 13: 1–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell FR (1983) Intercellular contacts of lymphocytes during migration across high-endothelial venules of lymph nodes. An electron microscopic study. Anat Rec 207: 643–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chan JKC, Ng CS, Hui PK (1988) A simple guide to the terminology and application of leucocyte monoclonal antibodies. Histopathology 12: 461–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cho Y, de Bruyn PPH (1979) The endothelial structure of the postcapillary venules of the lymph node and the passage of lymphocytes across the venule wall. J Ultrastruct Res 69: 13–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colizza S, Bertolotti A, Anella R, Di Paola M (1979) The host defensive factor grade: histologic features of colonic cancer and regional lymph nodes as putative indices of host resistance to the tumor. Dis Colon Rectum 22: 93–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cordell JL, Falini B, Erber WN et al. (1984) Immunoenzymatic labeling of monoclonal antibodies using immune complexes of alkaline phosphatase and monoclonal anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP complexes). J Histochem Cytochem 32: 219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cottier H, Turk J, Sobin LH (1972) A proposal for a standardized system of reporting human lymph node morphology in relation to immunological function. WHO Bull 47: 375–406Google Scholar
  13. Currie G (1980) Cancer and the immune response, 2nd edn. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Druckrey H, Preussmann R, Matzkies F, Ivankovic S (1967) Selektive Erzeugung von Darmkrebs bei Ratten durch 1,2-Dimethylhydrazin Naturwissenschaften 54: 285–286Google Scholar
  15. Facchetti F, de Wolf-Peeters C, van den Oord JJ, Meijer CJLM, Pals ST, Desmet VJ (1989) Antihigh endothelial venule monocloncal antibody HECA-452 recognizes plasmacytoid T-cells and delineates and “extranodular” compartment in reactive lymph nodes. Immunol Lett 20: 277–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fossum S, Ford WL (1985) The organization of cell populations within lymph nodes: their origin, life history and functional relationships. Histopathology 9: 469–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fossum S, Smith ME, Ford WL (1983) The migration of lymphocytes across specialized vascular endothelium VII. The migration of T and B lymphocytes from the blood of the athymic, nude rat. Scand J Immunol 17: 539–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gerdes J, Schwab U, Lemke H, Stein H (1983) Production of a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with a human nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation. Int J Cancer 31: 13–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerdes J, Lemke H, Baisch H, Wacker HH, Schwab U, Stein H (1984) Cell cycle analysis of a cell proliferation-associated human nuclear antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody Ki 67. J Immunol 133:1710–1715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gilman SC, Rosenberg JS, Feldman JD (1982) Membrane phenotype of the rat cytotoxic T-lymphocyte. J Immunol 129: 1012–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Götz H (1983) Tumorimmunologie. In: Vorlaender KO (ed) Immunologie, 2nd edn. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 734–764Google Scholar
  22. Gratzner HG (1982) Monoclonal antibody to 5-bromo-and 5-iododeoxyuridine: a new reagent for detection of DNA replication. Science 218: 474–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grundmann E (1984) Die lymphogene Metastasierung. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 68: 33–46Google Scholar
  24. Grundmann E, Vollmer E (1985) Early local reaction and lymph node permeation of rat carcinoma HH9-cl-14 cells. Pathol Res Pract 179: 304–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hölzel F, Sakuma S, Hanke D (1981) Origin of a malignant adenocarcinoma cell line induced by retrovirus-like particles from DMBA rat mammary tumors. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 102: 31–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Horny HP, Horst HA (1988) Immunoreactivity of tumour-regional axillary lymph nodes (abstract). J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 114 [Suppl]: S 168Google Scholar
  27. Hunt SV, Fowler MH (1981) A repopulation assay for B and T lymphocyte stem cells employing radiation chimeras. Cell Tissue Kinet 14: 445–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ishii Y, Matsuura A, Tàkami T et al. (1984) Lymphoid cell subpopulations infiltrating into autologous rat tumors undergoing rejection. Cancer Res 44: 4053–4058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kojima O, Fujita Y, Oh A, Sakita M, Nishioka B, Majima S (1980) Immunomorphologic study of regional lymph nodes in cancer: response of regional lymph node cells from gastric and colorectal cancer to PHA stimulation. Jpn J Surg 10: 212–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Krueger GRF (1985) Klinische Immunpathologie. Kohlhammer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  31. Mason DW, Arthur RP, Dallmann MJ, Green JR, Spickett GP, Thomas ML (1983) Functions of rat T-Lymphocyte subsets isolated by means of monoclonal antibodies. Immunol Rev 74: 57–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meyer EM (1980) Reaktionsmuster der lymphatischen Organe unter Immunstimulation, Immun-suppression und während der Karzinogenese im Tierexperiment. Habilitationsschrift, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  33. Meyer EM (1981) Zur prognostischen Bedeutung tumorabhängiger histologischer Lymphknotenreaktionen. GBK-Mitteilungsdienst NF H. 35: 1–4Google Scholar
  34. Meyer EM (1982) Zur funktionellen Bedeutung der histologischen Lymphknotenreaktionen. Klin Wochenschr 60: 265–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meyer EM, Grundmann E (1982) Lymph node reactions to cancer. Klin Wochenschr 60: 1329–1338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meyer EM, Schlake W, Nomura K, Grundmann E (1980) Reactive histological changes in lymph nodes during carcinogenesis and tumor growth. In: Grundmann E (ed) Metastatic tumor growth. Cancer Campaign, vol 4. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 173–184Google Scholar
  37. Meyer EM, Vollmer E, Rüller S, Krieg V, Vordemfelde A (1986) Histologisches Immunstaging beim kolorektalen Karzinom. In: Hermanek P (ed) Bedeutung des TNM Systems für die klinische Onkologie. Forstschr Chir 1: 186–194Google Scholar
  38. Millek J (1984) Immunologische Abwehr und Krebs. Edition Medizin, Weinheim-Deerfeld Beach/Fla.Google Scholar
  39. Moll R (1987) Epithelial tumor markers: cytokeratins and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA). Curr Top Pathol 77: 71–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nielsen M, Christensen L, Jensen J, Thomsen JL, Andersen JA (1988) Axillary lymph node morphology in women with in situ breast carcinoma. Virchows Arch [A] 412: 347–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pihl E, Nairn RC, Hughes ESR, Cuthbertson AM, Rollo AJ (1980) Regional lymph node in stromal immunomorphology in colorectal carcinoma and relation to tumor spread. Pathology 12: 15–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Radzun HJ (1988) Differenzierungslinien im Monozyten/Makrophagensystem. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 72: 50–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Riegrova D, Jansa P (1982) Prognostic significance of reactive changes in regional lymph nodes in gastric and mammary carcinomas. Neoplasma 29: 481–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Roitt J, Brostoff J, Male D (1985) Immunology. Churchill Livingstone/Gower Medical, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Schutte B, Reynders MMJ, Bosman FT, Blijham GH (1987) Effect of tissue fixation on anti-bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem 35: 1343–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sell S (ed) (1977) Immunologie, Immunpathologie und Immunität. Verlag Chemie, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  47. Shimamoto F, Vollmer E (1987) Changes in intestinal mucosa above lymph follicles during carcinogenesis in rats. A light and electron microscopic study. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 113: 41–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Siegel BV (1985) Immunology and oncology. Int Rev Cytol 96: 89–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sopori ML, Cohen DA, Cherian S, Kaplan AM (1984) Antigen presentation in the rat: role of a nonadherent, nonphagocytic W3/13-, OX-6-positive T-cell in the presentation of antigen to primed T-lymphocytes. Cell Immunol 87: 177–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stein H, Dallenbach F, Dienemann D (1988) Differenzierungslinien physiologischer und maligner Zellen des lymphatischen Systems. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 72: 57–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Syrjänen KJ (1982) The lymph nodes. Reactions to experimental and human tumors. Exp Pathol, Suppl 8Google Scholar
  52. Syrjänen KJ, Hjelt LH (1977a) Paracortical activity of the regional lymph nodes as a prognostic determinant in gastric carcinoma. Scand J Gastroenterol 12: 897–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Syrjänen KJ, Hjelt LH (1977b) Morphology of the regional lymph nodes of gastric carcinoma and ulcer of the stomach in relation to immunological function. Scand J Gastroenterol 12: 903–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tabuchi Y, Takiguchi Y, Murayama Y, Saito Y (1981) Effect of cellular reaction in gastric cancer tissue and in regional lymph nodes on the mitotic activity of cancer cells. GANN 72: 45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Takeuchi H, Suchi T, Suzuki R, Sato T (1982) Histological study of immune parameters of regional lymph nodes of gastric cancer patients. GANN 73: 420–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Tokuyasu KT (1984) Immuno-cryoultramicrotomy. In: Polak JM, Varndell JM (eds) Immunolabelling for electron microscopy. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 7–82Google Scholar
  57. Tsakraklides V, Anastassiades OT, Kersey JH (1973) Prognostic significance of regional lymph node histology in uterine cervical cancer. Cancer 31: 860–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tsakraklides V, Olson P, Kersey JH, Good RA (1974) Prognostic significance of the regional lymph node histology in cancer of the breast. Cancer 34: 1259–1267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vollmer E, Meyer EM (1986) Funktion und Reaktionsmuster von Lymphknoten in der Tumorabwehr. GBK-Mitteilungsdienst NF H. 49: 55–59Google Scholar
  60. Vollmer E, Hölzel F, Lingemann J, Happe J (1986a) Verteilungs-und Reaktionsmuster in den Lymphknoten bei der lymphogenen Metastasierung des Ratten-Ca. HH9-cl 14. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 70: 599Google Scholar
  61. Vollmer E, Kallin B, Krieg V, Hölzel F, Grundmann E (1986b) Immunhistologische Untersuchungen zum T-Lymphozytengehalt im regressiven Mammakarzinom HH9-cl 14 und den regionären LK der Ratte. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 70: 422Google Scholar
  62. Vollmer E, Shimamoto F, Krieg V, Grundmann E (1986c) Macrophages and T lymphocytes infiltrating the rat mammary carcinoma HH9-cl 14 in progressive and regressive tumor growth. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 111: 13–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vollmer E, Rüller S, Schäfer P, Krieg V, Meyer EM (1987) Lymph node reaction patterns in cases of stomach carcinoma and their prognostic significance. In: Klapdor R (ed) New tumour markers and their monoclonal antibodies. 4th Symposium on Tumour Markers, Hamburg. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 375–381Google Scholar
  64. Vollmer E, Roessner A, Wuisman P, Härle A, Grundmann E (1989) The proliferation behavior of bone tumors investigated with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. Curr Top Pathol 80: 91–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Weibel ER, Elias H (1967) Quantitative methods in morphology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Witting C (1979) B lymphocytes in carcinogenesis. Curr Top Pathol 67: 233–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Woodruff M (1979) Immunity in malignant disease. Br J Surg 66: 197–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Vollmer
  • V. Krieg
  • F. Shimamoto
  • E. Grundmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations