Leaf Optical Properties

  • E. A. Walter-Shea
  • J. M. Norman


Radiant energy intercepted by a vegetative canopy is primarily scattered by leaves either away from the leaf surface or to the leaf interior. The scattered radiation is reflected, transmitted, or absorbed by leaves. Many studies have been performed to develop an understanding of leaf reflectance and transmittance mechanisms. The partitioning of radiation as reflected, transmitted, or absorbed energy depends on a number of factors including leaf cellular structure (Gates et al. 1965; Knipling 1970; Woolley 1971), leaf pubescence and roughness (Gausman 1977), leaf morphology and physiology (Gausman et al. 1969a, b; Gausman and Allen 1973; Gausman et al. 1971a), and leaf surface characteristics (Breece and Holmes 1971; Grant 1985).


Relative Water Content Leaf Water Content Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function Cotton Leave Bidirectional Reflectance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



bidirectional reflectance distribution function


bidirectional reflectance factor


bidirectional transmittance distribution function


bidirectional transmittance factor


leaf area


radiant flux from sample surface


ideal radiant flux from ideal (“lossless”) Lambertian standard surface (BRDF)

dΩ̱, d Ω̱′

element of projected solid angles of reflected and incident radiation

fv(θ, φ;θ′,φ′)

bidirectional reflectance distribution function


incident radiation


IR: middle-infrared radiation (1.35–2.7 um)


near-infrared radiation (0.7–1.35 um)


reflectance factor


view zenith angle


view azimuth angle


source incidence zenith angle


source azimuth angle

ρ(θ′, φ′)

directional-hemispherical reflectance factor with source incidence angle, θ′

τ(θ′, φ′)

directional-hemispherical reflectance factor with source incidence angle, θ′

Ω̱, Ω̱′

solid angles of incident and reflected radiation


cos θ


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. A. Walter-Shea
  • J. M. Norman

There are no affiliations available

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