Control and Co-Ordination of Gas Exchange in Bimodal Breathers

  • R. G. Boutilier
Part of the Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology book series (COMPARATIVE, volume 6)


The ability to exchange respiratory gases effectively in either air or water has been exploited by a wide variety of amphibious vertebrates. The partitioning of O2 and CO2 transfer between aerial and aquatic exchange sites is a function of the exchange organs’ surface area, blood-to-medium diffusion distances and ventilation-perfusion ratios (see Piiper, this Vol.). In addition, the physical properties of water and air place different demands on the respiratory organs (Dejours 1981; Piiper 1982), and this is thought to have had important consequences, during evolution, on the design and performance of gas exchange organs in bimodal breathers (Johansen 1970; Randall et al. 1981; Shelton and Boutilier 1982; Shelton et al. 1986). It is generally accepted that a major selective force in the evolution of the air-breathing habit was aquatic hypoxia (Packard 1974), enabling those animals with air-breathing organs to remain in the warm, O2-deficient waters that are thought to have existed in the Upper Devonian (Inger 1957). Indeed, the intermittent use of air-breathing organs by extant vertebrates is indicative of this, where constraints on aquatic gas exchange lead to a periodic need for supplemental forms of gas exchange.


Lung Ventilation Aquatic Hypoxia Carotid Labyrinth Amphipnous Cuchia Bimodal Breather 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackerman RA, White FN (1979) Cyclic carbon dioxide exchange in the turtle Pseudemys scripts Physiol Zool 52: 378–389Google Scholar
  2. Andersson M (1978) Optimal foraging area: size and allocation of search effort. Theor Popul Biol 13: 397–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andresen JH, Ishimatzu A, Johansen K, Glass ML (1987) An angiocardiographic analysis of the central circulation in the air breathing teleost, Channa argus. Acta Zool (Stockh) 68: 165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ballintijn CM, Hughes GM (1965) The muscular basis of the respiratory pumps in the trout. J Exp Biol 43: 349–362Google Scholar
  5. Belkin DA (1968) Aquatic respiration and underwater survival of two freshwater turtles species. Respir Physiol 4: 1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berg T, Steen JB (1965) Physiological mechanisms for aerial respiration in the eel. Comp Biochem Physiol 15: 469–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett AF (1978) Activity metabolism in the lower vertebrates. Annu Rev Physiol 400: 447–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett AF, Houck LD (1983) The energetic cost of courtship and aggression in a plethodontid salamander. Ecology 64: 679–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bevan DJ, Kramer DL (1986) The effect of swimming depth on respiratory behaviour of the honey gourami, Colisa chuna ( Pisces, Belontiidae). Can J Zool 64: 1893–1896Google Scholar
  10. Bevan DJ, Kramer DL (1987) The respiratory behaviour of an air-breathing catfish, Clarias macrocephalus ( Clariidae ). Can J Zool 65: 348–353Google Scholar
  11. Bidani A, Crandall ED (1988) Velocity of CO2 exchanges in the lungs. Annu Rev Physiol 50: 639–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Binet L, Bochet M (1963) Resistance a l’hyperoxie de la grenouille Rana esculenta maintenue dans l’oxygene a 100 pourcent durant 52 jours. J Physiol (Paris) 55: 405–412Google Scholar
  13. Boutilier RG (1984) Characterization of the intermittent breathing pattern in Xenopus laevis. J Exp Biol 110: 291–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Boutilier RG (1988) Control of arrhythmic breathing in bimodal breathers: Amphibia. Can J Zool 66: 6–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boutilier RG (1989) Diving physiology: amphibians. In: Wood SC (ed) Comparative pulmonary physiology: current concepts, vol 39. Lung biology in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 677–695Google Scholar
  16. Boutilier RG, Shelton G (1986a) Respiratory properties of blood from voluntarily and forcibly submerged Xenopus laevis. J Exp Biol 121: 285–300Google Scholar
  17. Boutilier RG, Shelton G (1986b) The effects of voluntary and forced diving on ventilation, blood gases and pH in Xenopus laevis. J Exp Biol 122: 209–222Google Scholar
  18. Boutilier RG, Shelton G (1986 c) Gas exchange, storage and transport in voluntarily diving Xenopus laevis. J Exp Biol 126: 133–155Google Scholar
  19. Boutilier RG, Toews DP (1977) The effect of progressive hypoxia on respiration in the toad, Bufo marinus. J Exp Biol 68: 99–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boutilier RG, Toews DP (1981a) Respiratory, circulatory and acid-base, adjustments to hypercapnia in a strictly aquatic and predominantly skin breathing urodele, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Respir Physiol 46: 177–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boutilier RG, Toews DP (1981b) Respiratory properties of blood in a strictly aquatic and predominantly skin-breathing urodele Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Respir Physiol 46: 161–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boutilier RG, Randall DJ, Shelton G, Toews DP (1979 a) Acid-base relationships in the blood of the toad Bufo marinus. I. The effects of environmental CO2 J Exp Biol 82: 331–344Google Scholar
  23. Boutilier RG, Randall DJ, Shelton G, Toews DP (1979b) Acid-base relationships in the blood of the toad Bufo marinus. II. The effects of dehydration. J Exp Biol 82: 345–355Google Scholar
  24. Boutilier RG, McDonald DG, Toews DP (1980) The effects of enforced activity on ventilation, circulation and blood acid-base balance in the aquatic gill-less urodele, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis: a comparison with the semiterrestrial anuran, Bufo marinus. J Exp Biol 84: 289–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boutilier RG, Glass ML, Heisler N (1986) The relative distribution of pulmocutaneous blood flow in Rana catesbeiana: effects of pulmonary or cutaneous hypoxia. J Exp Biol 126: 33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Boutilier RG, Glass ML, Heisler N (1987) Blood gases, and extracellular/intracellular acid-base status as a function of temperature in the anuran amphibians Xenopus laevis and Bufo marinus. J Exp Biol 130: 13–25Google Scholar
  27. Brett SS (1980) Breathing and gas exchange in an aquatic amphibian, Xenopus laevis. PhD Dissertation, University of East Anglia, UKGoogle Scholar
  28. Brett SS, Shelton G (1979) Ventilatory mechansisms of the amphibian, Xenopus laevis: the role of the buccal force pump. J Exp Biol 80: 251–269Google Scholar
  29. Bugge J (1960) The heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus. Vidensk Medd Dan Naturhist Foren 123: 193–210Google Scholar
  30. Burggren WW (1979) Bimodal gas exchange during variation in environmental oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air breathing fish Trichogaster trichopterus. J Exp Biol 82: 197–213Google Scholar
  31. Burggren WW (1988) Cardiovascular responses to diving and their relation to lung and blood oxygen stores in vertebrates. Can J Zool 66: 20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Burggren WW (1989) Lung structure and function: Amphibians. In: Wood SC (ed) Comparative pulmonary physiology: current concepts, vol 39, Lung Biology in Health and Disease. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 153–192Google Scholar
  33. Burggren WW, Haswell MS (1979) Aerial CO2 excretion in the obligate air breathing fish Trichogaster trichopterus. J Exp Biol 82: 215–225Google Scholar
  34. Burggren WW, Johansen K (1986) Circulation and respiration in lungfishes ( Dipnoi ). J Morphol (Suppl) 1: 217–236Google Scholar
  35. Burggren WW, Moalli R (1984) ‘Active’ regulation of cutaneous gas exchange by capillary recruitment in amphibians: experimental evidence and a revised model for skin respiration. Respir Physiol 55:379–392Google Scholar
  36. Burggren WW, West NH (1982) Changing importance of gills, lungs and skin during metamorphosis in the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Respir Physiol 47: 151–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Burggren WW, Shelton G (1979) Gas exchange and transport during intermittent breathing in chelonian reptiles. J Exp Biol 82: 75–92Google Scholar
  38. Burggren WW, Feder ME, Pinder AW (1983) Temperature and the balance between aerial and aquatic respiration in larvae of Rana berlandieri and Rana catesbeiana. Physiol Zool 56: 263–273Google Scholar
  39. Carter GS, Beadle LC (1931) The fauna of the swamps of the Paraguayan Chaco in relation to its environment. II. Respiratory adaptations in the fishes. J Linn Soc Lond 37: 327–366Google Scholar
  40. Crandall ED, Bidani A (1981) Effect of red blood cell HCO3-/Cl- exchange kinetics on lung CO2 transfer: theory. J Appl Physiol 50: 265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Crawford EC Jr, Schultetus RR (1970) Cutaneous gas exchange in the lizard, Sauromalus obesus. Copeia 1970: 179–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Czopek J (1959) Skin and lung capillaries in European common newts. Copeia 1959: 91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Czopek J (1961) Vascularization of respiratory surfaces of some Plethodontidae. Zool Pol 11: 131–148Google Scholar
  44. Czopek J (1965) Quantitative studies on the morphology of respiratory surfaces in amphibians. Acta Anat 62: 296–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Davis JC, Cameron JN (1971) Water flow and gas exchange at the gills of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. J Exp Biol 54: 1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Daxboeck C, Barnard DK, Randall DJ (1981) Functional morphology of the gills of the bowfin, Amia calva L., with special reference to their significance during air exposure. Respir Physiol 9: 349–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. DeGroodt M, Lagasse A, Sebruyns M (1960) Elektronenmikroskopische Morphologie der Lungenalveolen des Protopterus und Amblystoma. Proc 4th Internat Conf Electron Microscopy, Berlin 1958, vol 1. Springer, Berlin Göttingen Heidelberg, pp 418–421Google Scholar
  48. DeJongh HJ (1972) Activity of the body wall musculature of the African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis (Daudin) during diving and respiration. Zool Med 47: 135–144Google Scholar
  49. DeJongh HJ, Gans C (1969) On the mechanism of respiration in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: a reassessment. J Morphol 127: 259–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dejours P (1973) Problems of control of breathing in fishes. In: Bolis L, Schmidt-Nielsen K, Madrell SHP (eds) Comparative physiology. Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 117–133Google Scholar
  51. Dejours P (1981) Principles of comparative respiratory physiology, 2nd edn. Elsevier/North Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  52. DeLaney RG, Laurent P, Galante R, Pack AI, Fishman AP (1983) Pulmonary mechanoreceptors in the dipnoan lungfish Protopterus and Lepidosiren. Am J Physiol 244: R418–R428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. de Saint-Aubain ML, Wingstrand K (1979) A sphincter in the pulmonary artery of the frog Rana temporaria and its influence on blood flow in skin and lungs. Acta Zool (Stockh) 60: 163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Deyst KA, Liem KF (1985) The muscular basis of aerial ventilation of the primitive lung of Amia calva. Respir Physiol 59: 213–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Emilio MG, Shelton G (1972) Factors affecting blood flow to the lungs in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis. J Exp Biol 56: 67–77Google Scholar
  56. Evans BK, Shelton G (1984) Ventilation in Xenopus laevis after lung or carotid labyrinth denervation. In: Giles R (ed) First Congress of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, volume issued by the Eur Soc Comp Physiol Biochem, Liege, Belgium, pp A 75Google Scholar
  57. Farber J, Rahn H (1970) Gas exchange between air and water and the ventilation pattern in the electric eel. Respir Physiol 9: 151–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Farrell AP, Randall DJ (1978) Air-breathing mechanics in two Amazonian teleosts, Arapaima gigas and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus. Can J Zool 56: 939–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Feder ME, Burggren WW (1985) Cutaneous gas exchange in vertebrates: design, patterns, control and implications. Biol Rev 60: 1–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Feder ME, Pinder AW (1988) Ventilation and its effect on “infinite pool” exchangers. Am Zool 28: 973–983Google Scholar
  61. Fishman AP, DeLaney RG, Laurent P (1985) Circulatory adaptation to bimodal respiration in the dipnoan lungfish. J Appl Physiol 59: 285–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Fishman AP, Galante RJ, Pack AI (1989) Diving physiology: lungfish. In: Wood SC (ed) Comparative pulmonary physiology: current concepts, vol 39. Lung biology in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 645–676Google Scholar
  63. Foxon GEH (1964) Blood and respiration. In: Moore JA (ed) Physiology of the Amphibia. Academic Press, New York, pp 151–209Google Scholar
  64. Garey WF, Rahn H (1970) Normal arterial gas tensions and pH and the breathing frequency of the electric eel. Respir Physiol 9: 141–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gee JH, Graham JB (1978) Respiratory and hydrostatic functions of the intestine of the catfishes Hoplosternum thoracatum and Brochis splendens ( Callichthyidae ). J Exp Biol 74: 1–16Google Scholar
  66. Girgis S (1961) Aquatic respiration in the common Nile turtle, Trionyx triunguis (Forskal). Comp Biochem Physiol 3: 206–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Glass ML, Johansen K (1976) Control of breathing in Acrochordus javanicus, an aquatic snake. Physiol Zool 49: 328–340Google Scholar
  68. Glass ML, Hicks JW, Riedesel ML (1979) Respiratory responses to long-term temperature exposure in the box turtle, Terrapene ornata. J Comp Physiol 131: 353–359Google Scholar
  69. Glass ML, Boutilier RG, Heisler N (1983) Ventilatory control of arterial PO2 in the turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii: effects of temperature and hypoxia. J Comp Physiol 151: 145–153Google Scholar
  70. Glass ML, Ishimatsu A, Johansen K (1986) Responses of aerial ventilation to hypoxia and hypercapnia in Channa argus, an airbreathing fish. J Comp Physiol B 156: 425–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Graham JB (1973) Terrestrial life of the amphibious fish Mnierpes macrocephalus. Mar Biol (Berlin) 23: 83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Graham JB (1974) Aquatic respiration in the sea snake Pelamis platurus. Respir Physiol 21: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Graham JB (1976) Respiratory adaptations of marine air-breathing fishes. In: Hughes GM (ed) Respiration of amphibious vertebrates. Academic Press, New York, pp 165–187Google Scholar
  74. Grahamm JB, Baird TA (1982) The transition to air breathing in fishes. I. Environmental effects on the facultative air breathing of Ancistris chagresi and Hypostomusplecostomus ( Loricariidae ). J Exp Biol 96: 53–67Google Scholar
  75. Graham JB, Kramer DL, Pineda E (1977) Respiration of the air-breathing fish Piabucina festae. J Comp Physiol 122: 295–310Google Scholar
  76. Guimond RW, Hutchison VH (1972) Pulmonary, branchial and cutaneous gas exchange in the mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus maculosus ( Rafinesque ). Comp Biochem Physiol 42A: 367–392Google Scholar
  77. Guimond RW, Hutchison VH (1973) Aquatic respiration: an unusual strategy in the hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis ( Daudin ). Science 182: 1263–1265Google Scholar
  78. Guimond RW, Hutchison VH (1976) Gas exchange of the giant salamanders of North America. In: Hughes GM (ed) Respiration of amphibious vertebrates. Academic Press, New York, pp 313–338Google Scholar
  79. Halliday TR, Sweatman HPA (1976) To breathe or not to breathe: the newt’s problem. Anim Behav 24: 551–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Heath AG (1975) Respiratory responses to hypoxia by Ambystoma tigrinum larvae, paedomorphs, and metamorphosed adults. Comp Biochem Physiol 55A: 45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Heatwole H, Seymour RS (1976) Respiration of marine snakes. In: Hughes GM (ed) Respiration of amphibious vertebrates. Academic Press, New York, pp 375–389Google Scholar
  82. Heatwole H, Seymour RS (1978) Cutaneous oxygen uptake in three groups of aquatic snakes. Aust J Zool 26: 481–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Heisler N (1982) Intracellular and extracellular acid-base regulation in the tropical fresh-water teleosts Symbranchus marmoratus in response to the transition from water breathing to air breathing. J Exp Biol 99: 9–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Heming TA, Watson TA (1986) Activity and inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in Amia calva, a bimodal breathing holostean fish. J Fish Biol 28: 385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Heming TA, Geers C, Gros G, Bidani A, Crandall ED (1986) Effects of dextran bound inhibitors on carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated rat lungs. J Appl Physiol 61: 1849–1856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hughes GM, Munshi JSD (1973) Nature of the air breathing organs of the Indian fishes Channa, Amphipnous, Clarius and Saccobranchus as shown by electron microscopy. J Zool Lond 170: 245–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hughes GM, Singh BN (1971) Gas exchange with air and water in an air-breathing catfish Saccobranchus fossilis. J Exp Biol 53: 281–298Google Scholar
  88. Hutchison VH, Miller K (1979) Aerobic and anaerobic contributions to sustained activity in Xenopus laevis. Respir Physiol 38: 93–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hutchison VH, Whitford WG, Kohl M (1968) Relation of body size and surface area to gas exchange in anurans. Physiol Zool 41: 65–85Google Scholar
  90. Hutchison VH, Haines HB, Engbretson G (1976) Aquatic life at high altitude: respiratory adaptations in the Lake Titicaca frog, Telmatobius culeus. Respir Physiol 27: 115–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hyde DA, Moon TW, Perry SF (1987) Physiological consequences of prolonged aerial exposure in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata: blood respiratory and acid-base status. J Comp Physiol 157: 635–642Google Scholar
  92. Inger RF (1957) Ecological aspects of the origin of the tetrapods. Evolution 11: 373–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ishii K, Ishii K (1976) The chemoreceptors of amphibians. In: Paintal AS (ed) Morphology and mechanisms of chemoreceptors. Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Inst, Delhi, India, pp 265–274Google Scholar
  94. Ishii K, Kusakabe T (1982) The glomus cell of the carotid labyrinth of Xenopus laevis. Cell Tissue Res 224: 459–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ishii K, Oosaki T (1969) Fine structure of the chemoreceptor cell in the amphibian carotid laby-rinth. J Anat (Lond) 104: 263–280Google Scholar
  96. Ishii K, Honda K, Ishii K (1966) The function of the carotid labyrinth in the toad. Tohoku J Exp Med 88: 103–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ishii K, Ishii K, Kusakabe T (1985) Chemo- and baroreceptor innervation of the aortic trunk of the toad Bufo vulgaris. Respir Physiol 60: 365–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ishimatzu A, Itazawa Y (1981) Ventilation of the air-breathing organ in the snakehead Channa argus. Jpn J Ichthyol 28: 276–282Google Scholar
  99. Ishimatzu A, Itazawa Y (1983) Difference in blood O2 levels in the outflow vessels of the heart of an air-breathing fish, Channa argus: do separate blood streams exist in a teleost heart. J Comp Physiol 149: 435–440Google Scholar
  100. Ishimatzu A, Itazawa Y, Takeda T (1979) On the circulatory systems of the snakeheads, Channa maculata and C. argus with reference to bimodal breathing. Jpn J Ichthyol 26: 167–180Google Scholar
  101. Ishimatzu A, Johansen K, Nilsson S (1986) Autonomic nervous control of the circulatory system in the air-breathing fish Channa argus. Comp Biochem Physiol 84C: 55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jackson DC (1973) Ventilatory response to hypoxia in turtles at various temperatures. Respir Physiol 18: 178–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Jackson DC (1976) Non-pulmonary Co2 loss during diving in the turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans. Comp Biochem Physiol 55A: 237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Jackson DC (1978) Respiratory control in air-breathing ectotherms. In: Davies DG, Barnes CD (eds) Regulation of ventilation and gas exchange. Academic Press, New York, pp 93–130Google Scholar
  105. Jackson DC (1986) Acid-base regulation of reptiles. In: Heisler N (ed) Acid-base regulation in animals. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 235–263Google Scholar
  106. Jackson DC, Braun BA (1979) Respiratory control in bullfrogs: cutaneous versus pulmonary response to selective CO2 exposure. J Comp Physiol 129: 339–342Google Scholar
  107. Jackson DC, Allen J, Strupp PK (1976) The contribution of non-pulmonary surfaces to CO22 loss in six species of turtles at 20°C. Comp Biochem Physiol 55A: 243–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Jesse MJ, Shub C, Fishman AP (1967) Lung and gill ventilation of the African lung fish. Respir Physiol 3: 267–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Johansen K (1966) Airbreathing in the teleost Synbranchus marmoratus. Comp Biochem Physiol 18: 383–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Johansen K (1968) Air breathing fishes. Sci Am 219: 102–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Johansen K (1970) Air breathing in fishes. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds) Fish physiology, vol IV. Academic Press, New York, pp 361–411Google Scholar
  112. Johansen K (1982) Blood circulation and the rise of air-breathing: passes and bipasses. In: Taylor CR, Johansen K, Bolis L (eds) A companion to animal physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 91–105Google Scholar
  113. Johansen K (1985) A phylogenetic overview of cardiovascular shunts. In: Johansen K, Burggren WW (eds) Cardiovascular shunts, Alfred Benzon Symposium 21. Munksgaard, Copenhagen pp 17–32Google Scholar
  114. Johansen K, Burggren WW (1980) Cardiovascular function in the lower vertebrates. In: Bourne G (ed) Hearts and heart-like organs, vol 1. Academic Press, New York, pp 61–117Google Scholar
  115. Johansen K, Lenfant C (1967) Respiratory function in the South American lungfish. J Exp Biol 46: 205–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Johansen K, Lenfant C (1968) Respiration in the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. II. Control of breathing. J Exp Biol 49: 453–468Google Scholar
  117. Johansen K, Lenfant C, Grigg GF (1967) Respiratory control in the lungfish Neoceratodus forsten ( Krefft ). Comp Biochem Physiol 20: 835–854Google Scholar
  118. Johansen K, Lenfant C, Hanson D (1968 a) Cardiovascular dynamics in the lungfishes. Z Vergl Physiol 59: 157–186Google Scholar
  119. Johansen K, Lenfant C, Schmidt-Nielsen K, Peterson JA (1968 b) Gas exchange and control of breathing in the electric eel Electrophorus electricus. Z Vgl Physiol 61: 137–163Google Scholar
  120. Johansen K, Hanson D, Lenfant C (1970 a) Respiration in a primitive air breather Amia calva. Respir Physiol 9: 162–174Google Scholar
  121. Johansen K, Lenfant C, Hanson D (1970b) Phylogenetic development of pulmonary circulation. Fed Proc Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 29: 1135–1140Google Scholar
  122. Jones DR, Chu C (1988) Effect of denervation of carotid labyrinths on breathing in unrestrained Xenopus laevis. Respir Physiol 73: 243–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jones DR, Milsom WK (1982) Peripheral receptors affecting breathing and cardiovascular function in non-mammalian vertebrates. J Exp Biol 100: 59–91Google Scholar
  124. Jones RM (1982) How toads breathe: control of air flow to and from the lungs by the nares in Bufo marinus. Respir Physiol 49: 251–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jordan J (1976) The influence of body weight on gas exchange in the air-breathing fish, Clarius batrachus. Comp Biochem Physiol 53A: 305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kern DM (1960) The hydration of carbon dioxide. J Chem Educ 37: 14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kramer DL (1978) Ventilation of the respiratory gas bladder in Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Pisces, Characoidei, Erythrinidae). Can J Zool 56: 931–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kramer DL (1983) The evolutionary ecology of respiratory mode in fishes: an analysis based on the costs of breathing. Environ Biol Fish 9: 145–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kramer DL (1988) The behavioral ecology of air breathing by aquatic animals. Can J Zool 66: 89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kramer DL, McClure M (1981) The transit cost of aerial respiration in the catfish, Corydoras aeneus ( Callichthyidae ). Physiol Zool 54: 189–194Google Scholar
  131. Kruhøffer M, Glass ML, Abe AS, Johansen K (1987) Control of breathing in an amphibian Bufo paracnemius: effects of temperature and hypoxia. Respir Physiol 69: 267–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kuhlmann WD, Fedde MR (1979) Intrapulmonary receptors in the bullfrog: sensitivity to CO2. J Comp Physiol 132: 69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lahiri S, Szidon JP, Fishman AP (1970) Potential respiratory and circulatory adjustments to hypoxia in the African lungfish. Fed Proc 29: 1141–1148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Laurent P, DeLaney RG, Fishman AP (1978) The vasculature of the gills in the aquatic and estivating lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. J Morphol 156: 173–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Legier JM, Cann J (1980) A new genus and species of chelid turtle from Queensland, Australia. Contrib Sci Nat Hist Mus Los Angeles County 324: 1–18Google Scholar
  136. Lenfant C, Johansen K (1967) Respiratory adaptations in selected amphibians. Respir Physiol 2: 247–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lenfant C, Johansen K (1968) Respiration in an African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus: respiratory properties of blood and normal patterns of breathing and gas exchange. J Exp Biol 49: 437–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Lenfant C, Johansen K, Grigg GC (1966) Respiratory properties of blood and pattern of gas exchange in the lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri ( Krefft ). Respir Physiol 2: 1–21Google Scholar
  139. Lenfant C, Johansen K, Hanson D (1970) Bimodal gas exchange and ventilation-perfusison relationship in lower vertebrates. Fed Proc 29: 1124–1129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Liem KF (1967) Functional morphology of the integumentary respiratory and digestive systems of the synbranchoid fish Monopterus albus. Copeia 1967: 375–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Liem KF (1980) Air ventilation in advanced teleosts: biomechanical and evolutionary aspects. In: Ali MA (ed) Environmental physiology of fishes. Plenum, New York, pp 57–91Google Scholar
  142. Liem KF (1984) The muscular basis of aquatic and aerial ventilation in the air-breathing teleost fish Channa. J Exp Biol 113: 1–18Google Scholar
  143. Liem KF (1987) Functional design of the air ventilation apparatus and overland excursions by teleosts. Fieldiana Zool, New Ser 37: 1–29Google Scholar
  144. Lillo RS (1980) Localisation of chemoreceptors which may cause diving bradycardia in bullfrogs. Can J Zool 52: 931–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Lomholt JP, Johansen K (1974) Control of breathing in Amphipnous cuchia, an amphibious fish. Respir Physiol 21: 325–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Lomholt JP, Johansen K (1976) Gas exchange in the amphibious fish, Amphipnous cuchia. J Comp Physiol 107: 141–157Google Scholar
  147. Macintyre DH (1975) Respiratory mechanisms and acid-base regulation in Bufo marinus marinus (L.). M Sc dissertation, Acadia University, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  148. Macintyre DH, Toews DP (1976) The mechanics of lung ventilation and the effects of hypercapnia on respiration in the toad, Bufo marinus. Can J Zool 54: 1364–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mackenzie JA, Jackson DC (1978) The effect of temperature on cutaneous CO2 loss and conductance in the bullfrog. Respir Physiol 32: 313–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Malvin GM (1985 a) Vascular resistance and vasoactivity of gills and pulmonary artery of the salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. J Comp Physiol 155:241–249Google Scholar
  151. Malvin GM (1985 b) Adrenoceptor types in the respiratory vasculature of the salamander gill. J Comp Physiol 155:591–596Google Scholar
  152. Malvin GM ( 1985 c) Cardiovascular shunting during amphibian metamorphosis. In: Johansen K, Burggren WW (eds) Cardiovascular shunts. Alfred Benzon Symposium 21. Munskgaard, Copenhagen, pp 163–178Google Scholar
  153. Malvin GM (1988) Microvascular regulation of cutaneous gas exchange in amphibians. Am Zool 28: 999–1007Google Scholar
  154. Malvin GM (1989) Gill structure and function: Amphibian larvae. In: Wood SC (ed) Comparative pulmonary physiology: current concepts, vol 39. Lung biology in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 121–151Google Scholar
  155. Malvin GM, Boutilier RG (1985) Ventilation-perfusion relationships in Amphibia. In: Giles R (ed) Circulation, respiration and metabolism. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 114–124Google Scholar
  156. Malvin GM, Hlastala MP (1986) Regulation of cutaneous gas exchange by environmental O2 and CO2 in the frog. Respir Physiol 65: 99–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Maren TH (1967) Carbonic anhydrase: chemistry, physiology, and inhibition. Physiol Rev 47: 595 - 781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Martin KM, Hutchison VH (1979) Ventilatory activity in Amphiuma tridactylum and Siren lacertina ( Amphibia, Caudata). J Herpetol 13: 427–434Google Scholar
  159. McDonald DG, Boutilier RG, Toews DP (1980) The effects of enforced activity on ventilation, circulation and blood acid-base balance in the semiterrestrial anuran, Bufo marinus. J Exp Biol 84: 273–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. McKean T (1969) A linear approximation of the transfer function of pulmonary mechanoreceptors in the frog. J Appl Physiol 27: 775–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. McMahon BR (1969) A functional analysis of the aquatic and aerial respiratory movements of an African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, with reference to the evolution of the lung-ventilation mechanism in the vertebrates. J Exp Biol 51: 407–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. McMahon BR, Burggren WW (1987) Respiratory physiology of intestinal air breathing in the teleost fish Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. J Exp Biol 133: 371–393Google Scholar
  163. Miller K, Hutchison VH (1979) Activity metabolism in the mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus. Physiol Zool 52: 22–37Google Scholar
  164. Milsom WK, Jones DR (1977) Carbon dioxide sensitivity of pulmonary receptors in the frog. Experientia 33: 1167–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Milsom WK, Jones DR (1985) Characteristics of mechanoreceptors in the air-breathing organ of the holostean fish, Amia calva. J Exp Biol 117: 389–399Google Scholar
  166. Munshi JSD (1968) The accessory respiratory organs of Anabas testudineus (B.L.) Anabantidae Pisces. Proc Linn Soc Lond (Zool) 179: 107–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Munshi JSD, Singh BN (1968) On the respiratory organs of Amphipnous cuchia (Ham. Buch). J Morphol 124: 423–444Google Scholar
  168. Nikinmaa M, Railo E (1987) Anion movements across lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) red cell membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta 899: 134–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Nikinmaa M, Tufts BL (1989) Regulation of acid and ion transfer across the membrane of nu-cleated erythrocytes. Can J Zool 67 (in press)Google Scholar
  170. Pack AI, Galante R, Fishman AP (1984) Breuer-Hering reflexes in the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens). Fed Proc Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 43: 433 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  171. Packard GC (1974) The evolution of air-breathing in Paleozoic gnathostome fishes. Evolution 28: 320–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Peters HM (1978) On the mechanism of air ventilation in anabantoids (Pisces: Teleostei). Zoomorphologie 89: 93–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Pettit MJ, Beitinger T (1985) Oxygen acquisition of the reedfish, Erpetoichthys calabaracus. J Exp Biol 114: 289–306Google Scholar
  174. Piiper J (1982) Respiratory gas exchange at lungs, gills and tissues: mechanisms and adjustments. J Exp Biol 100: 5–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Piiper J (1988) Models for cutaneous gas exchange and transport. Am Zool 28: 963–972Google Scholar
  176. Piiper J, Scheid P (1977) Comparative physiology of respiration: Functional analysis of gas exchange organs in vertebrates. In: Widdicombe JG (ed) International review of physiology, vol 14. Respiratory physiology, II. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 219–253Google Scholar
  177. Piiper J, Dejours P, Haab P, Rahn H (1971) Concepts and basic quantities in gas exchange physiology. Respir Physiol 13: 292–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Piiper J, Gatz RN, Crawford EC Jr (1976) Gas transport characteristics in an exclusively skin- breathing salamander, Desmognathus fuscus (Plethodontidae). In: Hughes GM (ed) Respiration in amphibious vertebrates. Academic Press, New York, pp 339–356Google Scholar
  179. Pinder AW (1987) Cutaneous diffusing capacity increases during hypoxia in cold, submerged bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Respir Physiol 70: 85–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Pinder AW, Burggren WW (1986) Ventilation and partitioning of oxygen uptake in the frog Rana pipiens: effects of hypoxia and activity. J Exp Biol 126: 453–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Poullet M (1977) A study of nerve endings in the carotid labyrinth of the toad (Bufo bufo) after degeneration. Biol Cell 28: 75–80Google Scholar
  182. Rahn H (1966) Aquatic gas exchange: theory. Respir Physiol 1: 1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Rahn H (1967) Gas transport from the external environment of the cell. In: DeReuck AUS, Porter R (eds) Development of the lung. Ciba Found Symp, Churchill, London, pp 3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Rahn H, Howell BJ (1976) Bimodal gas exchange. In: Hughes GM (ed) Respiration of amphibious vertebrates. Academic Press, New York, pp 271–285Google Scholar
  185. Rahn H, Rahn KB, Howell BJ, Gans C, Tenney SM (1971) Air-breathing of the garfish (Lepisosteus osseus). Respir Physiol 11: 285–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Randall DJ (1982 a) The control of respiration and circulation in fish during exercise and hypoxia. J Exp Biol 100:275–288Google Scholar
  187. Randall DJ (1982b) Blood flow through gills. In: Houlihan DF, Rankin JC, Shuttleworth TJ (eds) Gills. Soc Exp Biol Sem Ser 16, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 173–191Google Scholar
  188. Randall DJ, Farrell AP, Haswell MS (1978 a) Carbon dioxide excretion in the jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, a facultative air-breathing teleost. Can J Zool 56: 970–973Google Scholar
  189. Randall DJ, Farrell AP, Haswell MS (1978 b) Carbon dioxide excretion in the pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), an obligate air breathing fish. Can J Zool 56: 977–982Google Scholar
  190. Randall DJ, Burggren WW, Farrell AP, Haswell MS (1981) The evolution of air-breathing in vertebrates. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Rao HS, Hora LS (1938) On the ecology, bionomics and systematics of the blennid fishes of the genus Andamia Blyth. Rec Indian Mus 40: 377–401Google Scholar
  192. Rauch JC (1978) Integumentary blood vascular system in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis and Thamnophis radix). Can J Zool 56: 469–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Rogers DC (1966) A histological and histochemical study of the carotid labyrinth in the anuran amphibians, Bufo marinus, Hyla aurea and Neobatrachus pictus. Acta Anat 63: 249–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Root RW (1949) Aquatic respiration in the musk turtle. Physiol Zool 22: 172–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Rosen S, Friedley NJ (1973) Carbonic anhydrase activity in Rana pipiens skin: biochemical and histochemical analysis. Histochemie 36: 1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Rosenberg HI, Voris HK (1980) Cutaneous capillaries of sea snakes and their possible role in gas exchange. Am Zool 20: 758Google Scholar
  197. Sacca R, Burggren WW (1982) Oxygen uptake in air and water in the air-breathing reedfish Calamoichthys calabaricus: role of skin, gills and lungs. J Exp Biol 97: 179–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Scheid P (1982) A model for comparing gas-exchange systems in vertebrates. In: Taylor CR, Johansen K, Bolis L (eds) A companion to animal physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  199. Schottie E (1932) Morphologie und Physiologie der Atmung bei wasser-, schlämm- und land-lebenden Gobiiformes. Z Wiss Zool 140: 1–114Google Scholar
  200. Sewertzoff AN (1924) Die Entwicklung der Kiemen und Kiemenbogengefäße der Fische. Z Wiss Zool 121: 494–556Google Scholar
  201. Seymour RS (1982) Physiological adaptations to aquatic life. In: Gans C, Pough FH (eds) Biology of the Reptilia: physiological ecology, vol 13. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–51Google Scholar
  202. Seymour RS (1989) Diving physiology: reptiles. In: Wood SC (ed) Comparative pulmonary physiology: current concepts, vol 39. Lung biology in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 677–695Google Scholar
  203. Shannon P, Kramer DL (1988) Water depth alters respiratory behaviour of Xenopus laevis. J Exp Biol 137: 597–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Shelton G (1970) The effect of lung ventilation on blood flow to the lungs and body of the amphibian, Xenopus laevis. Respir Physiol 9: 183–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Shelton G (1985) Functional and evolutionary significance of cardiovascular shunts in the Amphibia. In: Johansen K, Burggren WW (eds) Cardiovascular shunts. Alfred Benzon Symposium 21. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 100–120Google Scholar
  206. Shelton G, Boutilier RG (1982) Apnoea in amphibians and reptiles. In: Butler PJ (ed) Control and co-ordination of respiration and circulation. J Exp Biol 100: 245–273Google Scholar
  207. Shelton G, Jones DR, Milsom WK (1986) Control of breathing in ectothermic vertebrates. In: Cherniack NS, Widdicombe JG (eds) Handbook of physiology, Sect 3. The respiratory system, vol 2. Control of breathing. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 857–909Google Scholar
  208. Shield JW, Bentley PJ (1973) Respiration of some urodele and anuran amphibia. I. In water, role of the skin and gills. Comp Biochem Physiol 46A: 17–28Google Scholar
  209. Singh BN (1976) Balance between aquatic and aerial respiration. In: Hughes GM (ed) Respiration of amphibious vertebrates. Academic Press, New York, pp 125–164Google Scholar
  210. Singh BN, Hughes GM (1971) Respiration of an air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus ( Linn ). J Exp Biol 55: 421–434Google Scholar
  211. Singh BN, Hughes GM (1973) Cardiac and respiratory responses in the climbing perch Anabas testudineus. J Comp Physiol 84: 205–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Smatresk NJ (1986) Ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to hypoxia and NaCN in Lepisosteus osseus, an air-breathing fish. Physiol Zool 59: 385–397Google Scholar
  213. Smatresk NJ (1988) Control of the respiratory mode in air-breathing fishes. Can J Zool 66: 144–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Smatresk NJ, Azizi SQ (1987) Characteristics of lung mechanoreceptors in spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus. Am J Physiol 252:R 1066–R1072Google Scholar
  215. Smatresk NJ, Cameron JN ( 1982 a) Respiration and acid-base physiology of the spotted gar, a bimodal breather. I. Normal values and the response to severe hypoxia. J Exp Biol 96: 263–280Google Scholar
  216. Smatresk NJ, Cameron JN (1982b) Respiration and acid-base physiology of the spotted gar, a bimodal breather. II. Responses to temperature change and hypercapnia. J Exp Biol 96: 281–293Google Scholar
  217. Smatresk NJ, Burleson ML, Azizi SQ (1986) Chemoreflexive responses to hypoxia and NaCN in longnose gar: evidence for two chemoreceptor loci. Am J Physiol 251: R116–R125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Smith DG (1976) The innervation of the cutaneous artery in the toad, Bufo marinus. Gen Pharmacol 7: 404–409Google Scholar
  219. Smith DG, Rapson L (1977) Differences in pulmonary microvascular anatomy between Bufo marinus and Xenopus laevis. Cell Tissue Res 178: 1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Smyth DH (1939) The central and reflex control of respiration in the frog. J Physiol 95: 305–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Standaert T, Johansen K (1974) Cutaneous gas exchange in snakes. J Comp Physiol 89: 313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Stevens ED, Holeton GF (1978) The partitioning of oxygen uptake from air and from water by erythrinids. Can J Zool 56: 965–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Taglietti V, Casella C (1966) Stretch receptors stimulation in frogs’ lungs. Pflügers Arch 292: 297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Taglietti V, Casella C (1968) Deflation receptors in frogs’ lungs. Pflügers Arch 304: 81–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Tamura SO, Morii H, Yuzuriha M (1976) Respiration of the amphibious fishes, Periophthalmus cantonensis and Boleophthalmus chinensis in water and on land. J Exp Biol 65: 97–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Todd ES, Ebeling AW (1966) Aerial respiration in the long jaw mud-sucker Gillichthys mirabilis (teleostei: Gobiidae ). Biol Bull 130: 256–288Google Scholar
  227. Toews DP (1971) Factors affecting the onset and termination of ventilation in the salamander, Amphiuma tridactylum. Can J Zool 49: 1231–1237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Toews DP, Boutilier RG (1986) Acid-base regulation in the Amphibia. In: Heisler N (ed) Acid- base regulation in animals. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 265–308Google Scholar
  229. Toews DP, Kirby S (1985) The ventilatory and acid-base physiology of the toad, Bufo marinus, during exposure to environmental hyperoxia. Respir Physiol 59: 225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Toews DP, Macintyre D (1978) Respiration and circulation in an apodan amphibian. Can J Zool 56: 998–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Toews D, Boutilier R, Todd L, Fuller N (1978) Carbonic anhydrase in the Amphibia. Comp Biochem Physiol 59A: 211–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Toews DP, Shelton G, Randall DJ (1971) Gas tensions in the lungs and major blood vessels of the urodele amphibian, Amphiuma tridactylum. J Exp Biol 55: 47–61Google Scholar
  233. Tufts BL, Boutilier RG (1989) The absence of rapid chloride/bicarbonate exchange in lamprey erythrocytes: implications for CO2 transport and ion distributions between plasma and erythrocytes in the blood of Petromyzon marinus. J Exp Biol 144: 565–576Google Scholar
  234. Van Vliet BN, West NH (1986) Cardiovascular responses to electrical stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in conscious toads (Bufo marinus). J Comp Physiol B 156: 363–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Wasserzug RJ, Paul RD, Feder ME (1981) Cardiorespiratory synchrony in anuran larvae (Xenopus laevis, Pachymedusa dacnicolor, and Rana herlandieri). Comp Biochem Physiol 70A: 329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. West NH, Burggren WW (1982) Gill and lung ventilatory responses to steady-state aquatic hypoxia and hyperoxia in the bullfrog tadpole. Respir Physiol 47: 165–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. West NH, Burggren WW (1983) Reflex interactions between aerial and aquatic gas exchange organs in larval bullfrogs. Am J Physiol 244: R770–R777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. West NH, Burggren WW (1984) Control of pulmonary and cutaneous blood flow in the toad, Bufo marinus. Am J Physiol 247: R884–R894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. West NH, Jones DR (1975) Breathing movements in the frog Rana pipiens. I. The mechanical events associated with lung and buccal ventilation. Can J Zool 53: 332–344Google Scholar
  240. West NH, Topor ZL, Van Vliet BN (1987) Hypoxemic threshold for lung ventilation in the toad. Respir Physiol 70: 377–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. White FN (1989) Carbon dioxide homeostasis. In: Wood SC (ed) Comparative pulmonary physiology: current concepts, vol 39. Lung biology in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 439–466Google Scholar
  242. Winokur RM (1973) Adaptive modifications of buccal mucosae in turtles. Am Zool 13: 1347–1348Google Scholar
  243. Wood SC (1982) The effect of oxygen affinity on arterial PO2 in animals with central vascular shunts. J Appl Physiol 53: 1360–1364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Wood SC (1984) Cardiovascular shunts and oxygen transport in lower vertebrates. Am J Physiol 16: 3–14Google Scholar
  245. Wood SC, Hicks JW (1985) Oxygen homeostasis in vertebrates with cardiovascular shunts. In: Johansen K, Burggren WW (eds) Cardiovascular shunts. Alfred Benzon Symposium 21: Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 354–366Google Scholar
  246. Wood SC, Lenfant CJM (1976) Respiration: mechanics, control, and gas exchange. In: Gans C, Dawson WR (eds) Biology of the Reptilia, vol 5. Physiology. Academic Press, New York, pp 225–274Google Scholar
  247. Wright WG, Raymond JA (1978) Air-breathing in a California sculpin. J Exp Zool 203: 171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Wright PA, Heming TA, Randall DJ (1986) Downstream pH changes in water flowing over the gills of rainbow trout. J Exp Biol 126: 499–512Google Scholar
  249. Yu K, Woo NY (1985) Effects of ambient oxygen tension and temperature on the bimodal respiration of an air-breathing teleost, Channa maculata. Physiol Zool 58: 181–189Google Scholar
  250. Zander CD (1972) Beziehungen zwischen Körperbau und Lebensweise bei Blenniidae (Pisces) aus dem Roten Meer. I. Äußere Morphologie. Mar Biol 13: 238–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Boutilier
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations