Tremendous progress has been made since the pioneering, but long overlooked, observation of Burrows [5] in 1912 that single beating heart cells migrated away from embryonic chick heart isolated tissue expiants. Burrows suggested that his finding supported the myogenic theory for cardiac beating activity. Several decades passed before the realization that isolated systems, such as cells in culture, might serve aas useful tools for studying biological systems began to take hold. For this reason, although tryptic dissociation, reported by Rous and Jones [68] in 1916, and Carrel’s method for subculturing cells [6] from 1912 have been available for many years, science had to wait until the 1950s for these techniques to be revived by Moscona [56], who isolated cells from embryonic tissues by proteolytic digestion. He also determined which essential materials, cofactors, and vitamins were required to successfully maintain cell cultures.


Myocardial Cell Heart Cell Cardiac Muscle Cell Cell Dissociation Heart Muscle Cell 
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  • A. Pinson

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