Antiviral T-Cell Memory?
Generally, it is accepted that immunological memory exists at both the B- and the T-cell level (reviewed in Katz 1977). It has been known for more than 100 years that the persistence of high antibody titers (Fig. 1) can be lifelong after viral infections and that delayed-type hypersensitivity can be demonstrated for a long time by challenging with a protein antigen after prior infection with tubercle bacilli. The concept of providing protection from disease by vaccination depends entirely on the existence of immunological memory. Although evidence for B-cell memory is abundant (Katz 1977), it is not clear whether it is maintained by means of (a) persistence of antigen, (b) continuous exposure to cross-reactive “natural” environmental antigen, or (c) the existence of true memory B cells.
KeywordsAlbumin Influenza Bacillus Sarcoma Halflife
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anonymous (1986) Reinfections with influenza. Lancet ii: 372–374Google Scholar
- Charan S, Roost HP, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM (1989) Analysis of the kinetics of antiviral T help in vivo (manuscript in preparation)Google Scholar
- Fazekas de St. Groth S (1981) The joint evolution of antigens and antibodies in the immune system. In: Steinberg CM, Lefkovits I (eds) The immune system, Vol. I. Karger, Basel, pp 155–168Google Scholar
- Katz DH (1977) Lymphocyte differentiation, recognition and regulation. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Manca F, Kunkl A, Fenoglio D, Fowler A, Sercarz E, Celada F (1985) Constraints in T-B cooperation related to epitope topology on E. coli β-galactosidase. - I. The fine specificity of T cells dictates the fine specificity of antibodies directed to conformation-dependent determinants. Eur J Immunol 15: 345–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pirquet C (1907) Von klinischen Studien über Vakzination und vakzinale Allergie. Denticke, F LeipzigGoogle Scholar
- Thomas DB, Hackett CJ, Askonas BA (1972) Evidence for two T-helper populations with distinct specificity in the humoral response to influenza A viruses. Immunology 47: 429–436Google Scholar
- Wagner RR (1975) Reproduction of rhabdoviruses: composite model of infection. Virology 4:41Google Scholar
- Yewdell JW, Bennink JR, Smith GL, Moss B (1985) Influenza A virus nucleoprotein is a major target antigen for cross-reactive anti-influenza A virus nucleoprotein is a major target antigen for cross- reactive anti-influenza A virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 1785–1789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zinkernagel RM (1979) Heterogeneization and MHC restricted T cells. In: Kobayashi H (ed) Immunological zenogenization of tumor cells. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 181–184Google Scholar