Feedback Delays and Control in Complex Dynamic Systems

  • Berndt Brehmer


Modern technology makes great demands upon people’s ability to understand and control complex dynamic systems, such- as process plants. In such systems, feedback delays are inevitable; everything takes time, and there is little hope that a person will be able to observe all, or even the most important, consequences of his actions immediately. For example, in some industrial processes, the effects of certain control actions may not be apparent until hours later. Whether or not a person is able to develop adequate strategies to cope with such delays will determine the extent to which he/she will be able to control a complex dynamic system. Thus, this is a question of considerable practical importance, as well as a question of theoretical interest.


Process Plant Feedback Delay Complex Dynamic System Adequate Strategy Spot Plane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brehmer, B. (1989). Strategies in real-time, dynamic decision making. In R. Hogarth (Ed.), Insights in decision making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Brehmer, B. & Allard, R. (1988a). Feedback delays in real time, dynamic decision making. Uppsala Psychological Reports.Google Scholar
  3. Brehmer, B. & Allard, R. (1988b). Dynamic, real time decision making: Effects of complexity and feedback delays. Uppsala Psychological Reports.Google Scholar
  4. Brehmer, B. & Allard, R. (1988c). Learning by doing in real time, dynamic decision tasks. Uppsala Psychological Reports.Google Scholar
  5. Brehmer, B. & Allard, R. (1988d). Effects of opportunities to give sequences of commands in real time, dynamic decision making. Uppsala Psychological Reports.Google Scholar
  6. Brigham, F. R. & Laios, C. (1975). Operator performance in the control of a simulated process plant. Ergonomics, 18, 53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental models. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Sterman, J. (1988). Modeling managerial behavior: Misperceptions of feedback in as a dynamic decision making experiment. Management Science, In press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berndt Brehmer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUppsala University48 UppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations