The discovery by Anderson [46.1] of the localization of electrons in sufficiently strong random potentials in 1958 inspired numerous investigations of disordered systems. The early development is reviewd by Mott and Davis [46.2]. Renormalization group and scaling arguments [46.3–5] were introduced into the theory and have led to scaling laws. Scaling functions were calculated in certain limiting cases using partial summations of the perturbation series, in particular including the backscattering effects discussed in Chap. 45 [46.5,6]. The results led to the conclusion that not only in one but also in two dimensions electrons are always localized in a random potential, regardless of its strength.
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