The Place of Quantitation in Diagnostic Gastrointestinal Pathology

  • J. M. Sloan
  • D. C. Allen
  • P. W. Hamilton
  • P. C. H. Watt
Part of the Current Topics in Pathology book series (CT PATHOLOGY, volume 81)


Diagnosis based on histopathological or cytopathological assessment frequently shows considerable interobserver variation. More efficient exchange of information over recent decades has improved diagnostic standards but the subjective nature of the interpretation involved means that the standardisation available in other branches of laboratory medicine cannot easily be achieved. For example despite detailed and widely publicised attempts to achieve more uniform assessment of dysplasia in gastric (Morson et al. 1980; Ming et al. 1984) and in colonic mucosa (Riddell et al. 1983) there is still widespread variation even among histopathologists experienced in this field.


Ulcerative Colitis Lamina Propria Coeliac Disease High Grade Dysplasia Collagenous Colitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aherne WA, Dunnill MS (1982) Morphometry. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen DC, Hamilton PW, Watt PCH, Biggart JD (1987) Morphometrical analysis in ulcerative colitis with dysplasia and carcinoma. Histopathology 11:913–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen DC, Hamilton PW, Watt PCH, Biggart JD (1988a) Architectural morphometry in ulcerative colitis with dysplasia. Histopathology 12:611–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen DC, Connolly NS, Biggart JD (1988b) High iron diamine - alcian blue mucin profiles in benign, premalignant and malignant colorectal disease. Histopathology 13:399–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Armitage NC, Robins RA, Evans DF, Turner DR, Baldwin RW, Hardeastle JD (1985) The influence of tumour cell DNA abnormalities on survival in colorectal cancer. Br J Surg 72:828–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baak JPA, Oort J (1983) A manual of morphometry in diagnostic pathology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Baak JPA, Agrafojo Blanco A, Kurver PHJ et al. (1981) Quantitation of borderline and malignant mucinous ovarian tumours. Histopathology 5:353–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Banner BF, Chacho MS, Roseman DL, Coon JS (1987) Multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of colon polyps. Am J Clin Pathol 87:313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barlogie B, Drewinko B, Schumann J et al. (1980) Cellular DNA content as a marker of neoplasia in man. Am J Med 69:195–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Behar J, Sheahan DG (1975) Histological abnormalities in reflux oesophagitis. Arch Pathol 99:387–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennets R, Stroehlein J, Barlogie B (1979) Ploidy determination by DNA flow cytometry of malignant and benign gastric tissue obtained by endoscopic biopsy. Gastroenterology 76:1099Google Scholar
  12. Bezemer PD, Baak JPA, de With C (1977) Discriminant analysis, exemplified with quantitative features of endometrium. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 7(3):209–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohm N, Sandritter W (1975) DNA in human tumours: a cytophotometric study. Curr Top Pathol 60:151–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bohm N, Sprenger E (1968) Fluorescence cytophotometry: a valuable method for the quantitative determination of nuclear fuelgen-DNA. Histochemie 16:100–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Boon ME, Kurver PJH, Baak JPA, Thompson HT (1981) The application of morphometry in gastric cytological diagnosis. Virchows Arch [A]393:159–164Google Scholar
  16. Bradbury S (1979) Microscopical image analysis: problems and approaches. J Microscopy 115:137–150Google Scholar
  17. Brandtzaeg P, Baklien K, Fäusa O, Hoel PS (1974) Immunohistochemical characterization of local immunoglobulin formation in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 66:1123–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown LJR, Smeeton NC, Dixon MF (1985) Assessment of dysplasia in colorectal adenomas: an observer variation and morphometric study. J Clin Pathol 38:174–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bussey HJR (1978) Multiple adenomas and carcinomas. In: Bennington JL (ed) Major problems in pathology, vo1 10. The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 72–80Google Scholar
  20. Chalkley HW (1943) Methods for the quantitative morphologic analysis of tissues. J Natl Cancer Inst 4:47–53Google Scholar
  21. Chalkley HW, Cornfield J, Park H (1949) A method for estimating volume-surface ratios. Science 110:295–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Collins BJ, Elliott H, Sloan JM, McFarland RJ, Love AHG (1985) Oesophageal histology in reflux oesophagitis. J Clin Pathol 38:1265–1272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Coon JS, Landay AL, Weinstein RS (1986) Flow cytometric analysis of paraffin-embedded tumours: implications for diagnostic pathology. Hum Pathol 17:435–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cooper PN, Quirke P, Hardy GJ, Bird CC, Dixon MF (1987) Prediction of the behaviour of smooth muscle tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. J Pathol 152:217AGoogle Scholar
  25. Corrazza GR, Frazzoni M, Gasbarrini G (1984) Jejunal intraepithelial lymphocytes in coeliac disease: are they increased or decreased? Gut 25:158–162Google Scholar
  26. Corazza GR, Frazzoni M, Dixon MF, Gasbarrini G (1985) Quantitative assessment of the mucosal architecture of jejunal biopsy specimens: a comparison between linear measurement, stereology and computer aided microscopy. J Clin Pathol 38:765–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cuvelier CA, Morson BC, Roels HJ (1987) The DNA content in cancer and dysplasia in chronic ulcerative colitis. Histopathology 11:927–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Danno M (1975) Statistical criteria for the cytology of gastric cancer. A proposal of distance index. Acta Cytol 20:446–468Google Scholar
  29. Dawson PA, Patel J, Filipe MI (1978) Variations in sialomucins in the mucosa of the large intestine in malignancy: a quantimet and statistical analysis. Histochem J 10:559–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Day DW, Morson BC (1978) The adenoma-carcinoma sequence. In: Bennington JL (ed) Major problems in pathology, vol 10. The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 58–71Google Scholar
  31. Deinlein E, Schmidt H, Riemann J-F, Gra El-Pietrusky R, Hornstein OP (1983) DNA flow cytometric measurements in inflammatory and malignant human gastric lesions. Virchows Archiv [A]402:185–193Google Scholar
  32. Dhesi I, Marsh MN, Kelly C, Crowe P (1984) Morphometric analysis of small intestinal mucosa. Virchows Arch [A]403:173–180Google Scholar
  33. Dukes CE (1932) The classification of cancer of the rectum. J Pathol Bact 35:323–332Google Scholar
  34. Dundas SAC, Kay R, Beck S, Cotton DWK, Coup aJ, Slater DN, Underwood JCE (1987) Can histopathologists reliably assess dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease? J Clin Pathol 40:1282–1286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dunnill MS, Whitehead R (1972) A method for the quantitation of small intestinal biopsy specimens. J Clin Pathol 25:243–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Eide TJ (1986) Prevalence and morpological features of adenomas of the large intestine in individuals with and without colorectal carcinoma. Histopathology 10:111–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Elias H, Hyde DM, Mullens RS, Lambert FC (1981) Colonic adenomas: stereology and growth mechanisms. Dis Colon Rectum 24:331–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Enblad P, Glimelius B, Bengtssen A, Ponten J, Pahlmen L (1985) DNA content in carcinoma of the rectum and rectosigmoid. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand [A]93:277–284Google Scholar
  39. Ferguson A, Murray D (1971) Quantitation of intraepithelial lymphocytes in human jejunum. Gut 12:989–994Google Scholar
  40. Ferguson A, Ziegler K (1986) Intraepithelial lymphocyte mitoses in a jejunal biopsy correlates with intraepithelial lymphocyte count irrespective of diagnosis. Gut 27:675–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Filipe MI (1969) Value of histochemical reactions for mucosubstances in the diagnosis of certain pathological conditions of the colon and rectum. Gut 10:577–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Filipe MI (1984) Mucins of normal, premalignant and malignant colonic mucosa. In: Wolman SR, Mastromarina AJ (eds) Progress in cancer research and therapy, vol 29. Raven, New York, pp 237–251Google Scholar
  43. Forsslund G, Cedermark B, Ohman U, Erhardt K, Zetterberg A, Auer G (1984) The significance of DNA distribution pattern in rectal carcinoma. A preliminary study. Dis Colon Rectum 27:579–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fozard JBJ, Quirke P, Dixon MF, Giles GR, Bird CC (1986) DNA aneuploidy in ulcerative colitis. Gut 27:1414–1418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gardiner GW, Goldberg R, Currie D, Murray D (1984) Colonic carcinoma associated with an abnormal collagen table. Cancer 54:2973–2977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Giard RWM, Hermans J, Ruiter DJ, Hoedemaeker PHJ (1985) Variations in histopathological evaluation of non-neoplastic mucosal abnormalities: assessment and clinical significance. Histopathology 9:535–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Goh HS, Jass JR (1986) DNA content and the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in the colorectum. J Clin Pathol 39:387–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goh HS, Jass JR, Atkin WS, Cuzick J, Northover JMA (1987) Value of flow cytometric determination of ploidy as a guide to prognosis in operable rectal cancer. Int J Colorect Dis 2:17–21Google Scholar
  49. Guix M, Skinner JM, Whitehead RW (1979) Measuring intraepithelial lymphocytes, surface area and volume of lamina propria in the jejunal mucosa of coeliac patients. Gut 20:275–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hamilton PW, Allen DC, Watt PCH, Patterson CC, Biggart JD (1987a) Classification of normal colorectal mucosa and adenocarcinoma by morphometry. Histopathology 11:901–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hamilton PW, Collins JSA, Watt PCH, Sloan JM, Love AHG (1987b) Morphometric assessment of oesophagitis in pinch biopsies and correlation with ambulatory pH data. J Pathol 151:78AGoogle Scholar
  52. Hamilton PW, Watt PCH, Collins JSA, Sloan JM, Love AHG (1987c) Objective grading of gastritis and duodenitis: a comparison of two methods. J Pathol 152–228AGoogle Scholar
  53. Hamilton PW, Watt PCH, Allen DC (1988) A morphometrical assessment of transitional mucosa in the colon. Histopathology 13:519–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hammarberg C, Slezak P, Tribukait B (1984) Early detection of malignancy in ulcerative colitis. A flow-cytometric DNA study. Cancer 53:291–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Heatley RV, James PD (1979) Eosinophils in the rectal mucosa. A simple method of predicting the outcome of ulcerative proctocolitis? Gut 20:787–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hedley DW, Friedlander ML, Taylor IW, Rugg CA, Musgrove EA (1983) Method for analysis of cellular DNA content of paraffin-embedded pathological material using flow cytometry. J Histochem Cytochem 31:1333–1335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hedley DW, Friedlander ML, Taylor IW (1985) Application of DNA flow cytometry to paraffin-embedded archival material for the study of aneuploidy and its clinical significance. Cytometry 6:327–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hywel-Jones J, Lcnnard-Joncs JE, Morson BC (1973) Numerical taxonomy and discriminant analysis applied to non-specific colitis. Q J Med 42:715–732Google Scholar
  59. Inokuchi K, Kodama Y, Sasaki O, KamegawaT, Okamura T (1983) Differentiation of growth patterns of early gastric carcinoma determined by cytophotometric DNA analysis. Cancer 51:1138–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Inui N. Oata K (1965) DNA content of human tumour cell nucleus: a study on gastric carcinoma with special reference to its histological features. Gann 56:567–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ismail-Beigi F, Horton PF, Pope CE (1970) Histological consequences of gastroesophageal reflux in man. Gastroenterology 58:163–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jarvis LR, Whitehead R (1985) Morphometric analysis of gastric dysplasia. J Pathol 47:133–138Google Scholar
  63. Jarvis LR, Dent J, Whitehead R (1985) Morphometrie assessment of reflux oesophagitis in fibreoptic biopsy specimens. J Clin Pathol 38:44–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jarvis LR, Graff PS, Whitehead R (1987) Correlation of nuclear ploidy with histology in adenomatous polyps of colon. J Clin Pathol 40:26–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Jass JR, Morson BC (1987) Reporting colorectal carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 40:1016–1023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jass JR, Love SB, Northover JMA (1987) A new prognostic classification of rectal cancer. Lancet 1:1303–1306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jenkins D, Goodall A, Gillet FR, Scott BB (1985) Defining duodenitis: quantitative histological study of mucosal responses and their correlations. J Clin Pathol 38:1119–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Jenkins D, Goodall A, Scott BB (1986) Tlymphocyte populations in normal and coeliac small intestinal mucosa defined by monoclonal antibodies. Gut 27:1330–1331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Jenkins D, Goodall A, Drew K, Scott BB (1988) What is colitis? Statistical approach to distinguishing clinically important inflammatory change in rectal biopsy specimens. J Clin Pathol 41:72–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kayser KK, Modlinger F, Postl K (1985) Quantitative low-resolution analysis of colon mucosa. Anal Qant Cytol Histol 7:205–212Google Scholar
  71. Keren DF, Appelman HD, Dobbins WO et al. (1984) Correlation of histopathologic evidence of disease activity with the presence of immunoglobulin-containing cells in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Hum Pathol 15:757–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kiefer G, Sandritter W (1976) DNA and the cell cycle. Beitr Pathol 158:332–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Konishi F, Morson BC (1982) Pathology of colorectal adenomas: a colonoscopic survey. J Clin Pathol 35:830–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kreuning J, Bosman FT, Kuiper G, Wal AM, Lindeman J (1978) Gastric and duodenal mucosa in “healthy” individuals. An endoscopic and histopathological study of 50 volunteers. J Clin Pathol 31:69–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Langley FA, Baak JPA, Oort J (1983) Diagnosis making: error sources. In: Baak JPA, Oort J (eds) A manual of morphometry in diagnostic pathology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 6–14Google Scholar
  76. Leigh RJ, Marsh MN, Crowe P, Kelly C, Garner V, Gordon D (1985) Studies of intestinal lymphoid tissue IX. Dose dependent gluten induced lymphoid infiltration of coeliac jejunal epithelium. Scand J Gastroenterol 20:715–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lennard-Jones JE, Morson BC, Ritchie JK, Williams CB (1983) Cancer suveillance in ulcerative colitis. Experience over 15 years. Lancet 11:149–152Google Scholar
  78. Leuchtenberger C, Leuchtenberger R, Davis A (1954) A microspectrophotometric study of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content in cells of normal and malignant human tissues. Am J Pathol 30:65–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lev R. Lance P, Camara P (1985) Histochemical and morphologic studies of mucosa bordering rectosigmoid carcinomas: comparisons with normal, diseased and malignant colonic epithelium. Hum Pathol 16:151–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lindstrom CG (1976) “Collagenous colitis” with watery diarrhoea: a new entity? Pathologia Europaea 11:87–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lofberg R, Tribukait B, Ost A, Brostrom O. Reichard H (1987) Flow cytometric DNA analysis in longstanding ulcerative colitis: a method of prediction of dysplasia and carcinoma development? Gut 28: 1100–1106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lovett EJ, Schnitzer B, Keren DF, Flint A, Hudson JL, McClatchey KD (1984) Application of flow cytometry to diagnostic pathology. Lab Invest 50:115–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lowe J, Kent J. Armitage NC, Ballantyne KC, Hardcastle JD (1986) Nuclear morphometry and nuclear DNA content in rectal carcinoma. In: Fourth International Symposium on Morphometry in Morphological Diagnosis. The Royal Society of Medicine, London, p 19Google Scholar
  84. Macartney JC, Camplejohn RS (1986) DNA flow cytometry of histological material from dysplastic lesions of human gastric mucosa. J Pathol 150:113–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Macartney JC, Camplejohn RS. Powell G (1986) DNA flow cytometry of histological material from human gastric cancer. J Pathol 148:273–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. MacDermott RP (1986) Symposium on cell-mediated immunity in human disease. Part II. Cell-mediated immunity in gastrointestinal disease. Hum Pathol 17:219–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Malizia G, Trejdosiewicz LK, Wood GM, Howdle PD, Janossy G, Losowsky MS (1985) The microenvironment of coeliac disease: T cell phenotypes and expression of the T2 ‘T blast’ antigen by small bowel lymphocytes. Clin Exp Immunol 60:437–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Marsh MN (1980) Studies of intestinal lymphoid tissue III. Quantitative analysis of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the small intestine of human control subjects and of patients with coeliac spruce. Gastroenterology 79:481–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Marsh MN (1982) Studies of intestinal lymphoid tissue IV — the predictive value of raised mitotic indices among jejunal epithelial lymphocytes in the diagnosis of gluten sensitive enteropahty. J Clin Pathol 35:517–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Marsh MN (1985) Functional and structural aspects of the epithelial lymphocyte with implications for coeliac disease and tropical sprue. Scand J Gastroenterol [Suppl] 114:55–75Google Scholar
  91. Marsh MN (1986) Measurement of intra-epithelial lymphocytes. Gut 27:1516–1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Maskens AP (1979) Histogenesis of adenomatous polyps in the human large intestine. Gastroenterology 77:1245–1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. McKinley M, Budman D, Caccese W, Weissman G, Scheidt N, Kahn E, Bronco R (1985) Evaluation of colonic neoplasia by flow cytometry of endoscopic biopsies. Am J Gastroenterol 80:47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Meier-Rüge W (1974) Hirschsprung’s disease: its aetiology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis. In: Grundmann E, Kirsten WH (eds) Curr Top Pathol 59:131–179Google Scholar
  95. Melamed M, Enker WE, Banner P, Janov AJ, Kessler G, Darzynkiewicz Z (1986) Flow cytometry of colorectal carcinoma aith three year follow-up. Dis Colon Rectum 29:184–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Melville DM, Jass JR, Shepherd NA (1987) DNA aneuploidy as a marker of neoplastic change in ulcerative colitis. J Pathol 152:215AGoogle Scholar
  97. Ming S-C, Bajtai A, Correa P et al. (1984) Gastric dysplasia. Significance and pathologic criteria. Cancer 54:1794–1801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Morson BC, Dawson IMP (1979) Gastro-intestinal pathology, 2nd edn Blackwell Scientific, LondonGoogle Scholar
  99. Morson BC, Sobin LH, Grundmann E, Johansen A, Nagayo T, Serch-Hanssen A (1980) Pre-cancerous conditions and epithelial dysplasia in the stomach. J Clin Pathol 33:711–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Mukada T, Sasano N, Sato E (1978) Evaluation of esophageal dysplasia by cytofluorometric analysis. Cancer 41:1399–1404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Nakamura K, Nakayo T, Sato E, Sasano N (1974) Ultramorphometry of the nucleus of human rectal cancer compared with normal mucosal gland. Tohoku J Exp Med 112:177–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nielsen VT, Vetner M, Harslof E (1980) Collagenous colitis. Histopathology 4:83–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Nogaller AM, Nikonenko TN, Avirina TK (1983) Clinico-morphological and morphometric characteristics of chronic colitis. Klin Med (Mosk) 61:82–88Google Scholar
  104. Ochlert W, Keller P, Henke M, Strauch M (1979) Gastric mucosal dysplasia: what is its clinical significance? Front Gastrointest Res 4:173–182Google Scholar
  105. Oja E, Collan Y (1983) Basic principles of image analysis by computer. Acta Stereol 2:250–261Google Scholar
  106. Owen DA (1984) Gastritis and duodenitis. In: Appleman HD (ed) Pathology of the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 37–43Google Scholar
  107. Painter NS (1964) The aetiology of diverticulosis of the colon with special reference to the action of certain drugs on the behaviour of the colon. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 34:98–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Painter NS, Burkitt DP (1975) Diverticular disease of the colon is a 20th century problem. Clin Gastroenterol 4:3–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Parl FF, Lev R, Thomas E, Pitchumuni CS (1979) Histologic and morphometric study of chronic gastritis in alcoholic patients. Hum Pathol 10:45–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Petrova AS, Subrichina GN, Tschistjakova OV. Lukina TA, Weiss H, Wildner G (1980) Flow cytofluorometry. cytomorphology and histology in gastric carcinoma. Oncology 37:318–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Phelps PC, Toker C. Trump BF (1979) Surface ultrastructure of normal, adenomatous and malignant epithelium from human colon. Scan Electron Microsc 3:169–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Quirkc P, Dyson JED (1986) Flow cytometry: methodology and applications in pathology. J Pathol 149: 79–87Google Scholar
  113. Quirke P, Dyson JED, Dixon MF, Bird CC. Joslin CAF (1985a) Heterogeneity of colorectal adenocarcinomas evaluated by flow cytometry and histopathology. Br J Cancer 51:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Quirke p, Fozard JBJ, Dixon MF, Dyson JED, Giles GR, Bird CC (1985b) DNA aneuploidy in colorectal adenomatous polyps with and without synchronous carcinoma. J Pathol 146:267AGoogle Scholar
  115. Quirke P, Dixon MF, Fozard JBJ, Day D, Talbot IC, Bird CC (1987a) DNA aneuploidy in familial polyposis coli: a flow cytometric study. J Pathol 151:76AGoogle Scholar
  116. Quirke P, Dixon MF, Clayden AD, Durdey P, Dyson JED, Williams NS, Bird CC (1987b) Prognostic significance of DNA aneuploidy and cell proliferation in rectal adenocarcinomas. J Pathol 151:285–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Riddell RH (1976) The precarcinomatous phase of ulcerative colitis. In: Morson BC (ed) Current topics in pathology. Pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, New York, pp 179–219Google Scholar
  118. Riddell RH, Goldman H, Ransohoff DF et al. (1983) Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel diseases: standardized classification with provisional clinical applications. Hum Pathol 14:931–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rosekrans PCM, Meijer CJLM, Cornelisse CJ, van der Wal AM, Lindemann J (1980a) Use of morpohometry and immunohistochemistry of small intestinal biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of food allergy. J Clin Pathol 33:125–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rosekrans PCM, Meijer CJLM, van der Wal AM, Cornelisse CJ, Lindeman J (1980b) Immunoglobulin containing cells in inflammatory bowel disease of the colon: a morphometric and immunohistochemical study. Gut 21:941–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Rosekrans PCM, Meijer CJLM, Polanco I, Mearin ML, van der Wal AM, Lindeman J (1981a) Long term morphological and immunohistochemical observations on biopsy specimens of small intestine from children with gluten sensitive enteropathy. J Clin Pathol 34: 138–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Rosekrans PCM, Lindeman J, Meijer CJLM (1981b) Quantitative immunological and immunohistochemical findings in jejunal biopsy specimens in giardiasis. Virchows Arch [A]393:145–151Google Scholar
  123. Rubin CE, Brandbort LL, Phelps DC, Taylor HC (1960) Studies of celiac disease. I. Gastroenterology 38:28–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rubio CA, Johansson C, Kock Y (1982a) A quantitative method of estimating inflammation in the rectal mucosa. II. Normal limits in symptomatic patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 17:1077–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rubio CA, Johansson C, Kock Y (1982b) A quantitative method of estimating inflammation in the rectal mucosa. Ill Chronic ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 17:1083–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Rubio CA, Johansson C, Uribe A, Kock Y (1984) A quantitative method of estimating inflammation in the rectal mucosa. IV. Ulcerative colitis in remission. Scand J Gastroenterol 19:525–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Saffos RO, Rhatigan RM (1977) Benign (non-polypoid) mucosal changes adjacent to carcinoma of the colon. Hum Pathol 8:441–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Sanderson IR, Slavin G, Walker-Smith JA (1985) Density of mucosal mast cells in the lamina propria of the colon and terminal ileum of children. J Clin Pathol 38:771–773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Sarin SK, Malhotra V, Gupta SS, Karol A, Gaur SK, Anand BS (1987) Significance of eosinophil and mast cell counts in rectal mucosa in ulcerative colitis. A prospective controlled study. Dig Dis Sci 32:363–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sassi I, Faravelli A, Freschi M, Ferrari AM, Cantaboni A (1986) Planimetric grading of dysplasia in colorectal adenomas: a step forward? In: Fourth International Symposium on Morphometry in Morphological Diagnosis. The Royal Society of Medicine, London, p 78Google Scholar
  131. Sato E, Goto N, Nakamura T (1981) Nuclear ultrastructure in carcinoma, adenoma, Peutz-Jeghers polyp and dysplasia of the large bowel: a morphometric analysis. Gann 72:245–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Schutte B, Reynders MMJ, Bosman FT, Blijham GH (1985) Flow cytometric determination of DNA ploidy level in nuclei isolated free from paraffin-embedded tissue. Cytometry 6:26–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Scott BB, Goodall A, Stephenson P, Jenkins D (1983) Rectal mucosal plasma cells in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 24:519–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Scott NA, Rainwater LM, Vieand HS, Weiland LH, Pemberton JH, Beart RW, Lieber NM (1987) The relative prognostic value of flow cytometric DNA analysis and conventional clinicopathologic criteria in patients with operable rectal carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum 30:513–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Seefeld U, Kreys GJ, Siebermann RE, Blum AL (1977) Esophageal histology in gastroesophageal reflux. Morphometric findings on suction biopsies. Dig Dis Sci 22:956–964Google Scholar
  136. Selby WS, Janossy G, Jewell DP (1981a) Immunohistological characterisation of intraepithelial lymphocytes of the human gastrointestinal tract. Gut 22:169–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Selby WS, Janossy G, Goldstein G, Jewell DP (1981b) T lymphocyte subsets in the human intestinal mucosa: the distribution and relationship to MHC-derived antigens. Clin Exp Immunol 44:453–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Selby WS, Janossy G, Bofill M, Jewell DP (1983) Lymphocyte subpopulations in the human small intestine. The findings in normal mucosa and in the mucosa of patients with adult coeliac disease. Clin Exp Immunol 52:219–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Seldenrijk CA, Hendriks G, Baak JPA, Van Spreejuwel JP, Smeulders AWM, Meuwissen SGM, Meijer CJLM (1986) Plasma cell counting in colonic biopsies. In: Fourth International Symposium on Morphometry in Morphological Diagnosis. The Royal Society of Medicine, London, p 79Google Scholar
  140. Shiner M, Doniach I (1960) Histopathologic studies in steatorrhoea. Gastroenterology 38:419–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Slavin G, Sowter C, Robertson K, McDermott S, Paton K (1980) Measurement in jejunal biopsies by computer aided microscopy. J Clin Pathol 33:254–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Spence RAJ, Sloan JM, Johnston GW, Greenfield A (1983) Oesophageal mucosal changes in patients with varices. Gut 24:1024–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Spence RAJ, Sloan JM, Johnston GW (1984) Histologic factors of the oesophageal transection ring as clues to the pathogenesis of bleeding varices. Surg Gynecol Obstet 159:253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sprenger E, Witte S, Schaden M (1974) The differential diagnostic role of nuclear DNA content in gastric cytology. In: Sprenger E, Witte S, Schaden M (eds) Early gastric cancer. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 154–158Google Scholar
  145. Stich HF, Florian SF, Emson HE (1960) The DNA content of tumour cells. I. Polyps and adenocarcinomas of the large intestine of man. J Natl Cancer Inst 24:471–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Strickland RG, Husby G, Black WC, Williams RC Jr (1975) Peripheral blood and intestinal lymphocyte sub-populations in Crohn’s disease. Gut 16:847–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Sugimachi K, Inokuchi K, Matsuura H, Okamura T, Sasaki O (1983) Cytophotometric DNA analysis of early esophageal carcinoma. Jpn J Surg 13:37–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Surawicz CM, Belie L (1984) Rectal biopsy helps to distinguish acute self-limited colitis from idiophatic inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 86:104–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Teodori L, Capurso L, Cordelli E et al. (1984) Cytometrically determined relative DNA content as an indicator of neoplasia in gastric lesions. Cytometry 5:63–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Thompson EM, Price AB, Altman DG, Sowter C, Slavin G (1985) Quantitation in inflammatory bowel disease using computerised interactive image analysis. J Clin Pathol 38:631–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Thurlbeck WM, Benson JA, Dudley HR (1960) The histopathological changes of sprue and their significance. Am J Clin Pathol 34:108–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Tosi P, Luzi P, Baak JPA, Miracco C, Vindigni C, Lio r, Barbini P (1987) Gastric dysplasia: a stereological and morphometrical assessment. J Pathol 152:83–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Toukan AU, Kamal MF, Amr SS, Arnaout MA, Abu-Romiyeh AS (1985) Gastro-duodenal inflammation in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. A controlled endoscopic and morphometric study. Dig Dis Sci 30:313–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Underwood EE (1970) Quantitative Steriology. Addison Wesley, Reading MassGoogle Scholar
  155. Van den Ingh HF, Griffioen G, Cornelisse CJ (1985) Folw cytometric detection of aneuploidy in colorectal adenomas. Cancer Res 45:3392–3397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Van Spreeuwel JP, Lindeman J, Meijer CJLM (1985) A quantitative study of immunoglobulin containing cells in the differential diagnosis of acute colitis. J Clin Pathol 38:774–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Van Spreeuwel JP, Meijer CJLM, Rosekrans PCM, Lindeman J (1986) Immunoglobulin containing cells in gastrointestinal pathology - diagnostic applications. Pathol Annu 21:295–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Watson AJ, Wright NA (1974) Morphology and cell kinetics of the jejunal mucosa in untreated patients with coeliac disease. Clin Gastrenterol 3:11–31Google Scholar
  159. Watt PCH, Collins JSA, Hamilton PW, Sloan JM, Love AHG (1987) A quantitative assessment of mucosal inflammation in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, duodenitis and duodenal ulcer. J Pathol 152:228 A–229 AGoogle Scholar
  160. Weibel ER (1963) Principles and methods for morphometric study of the lung and other organs. Lab Invest 12:131–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Weibel ER (1969) Stereological principles for morphometry in electron microscopic cytology. Int Rev Cytol 26:235–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Weibel ER (1979) Stereological methods, vol I. Practical methods for biological morphometry. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  163. Weinreb M, Zajicek G, Levij IS (1984) Discrimination betweeen normal and malignant gastric epithelial cells by computer image analysis. Anal Quant Cytol 6:206–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Weinstein WM, Bogoch ER, Bowes KL (1975) The normal human oesophageal mucosa: a histological reappraisal. Gastroenterology 68:40–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Weiss H, Gutz H-J, Wildner GP, Ebeling K, Schmidt W (1980) Characterisation of chronic atrophic gastritis by means of pulse cytophotometry. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [B] [Suppl] 274:412–416Google Scholar
  166. Whitehead F, Jarvis LR, Skinner JM, Whitehead R (1985) Ploidy studies in adenomatous polyps of the colon J Clin Pathol 38:1261–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Whitehead R (1985) Mucosal biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract. WB Saunders, LondonGoogle Scholar
  168. Whitehead R (1986) Measurement of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Gut 27:1399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Whitehead R, Roca M, Meikle DD, Skinner J, Truelove SC (1975) The histological classification of duodenitis in fibre-optic biopsy specimens. Digestion 13:129–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Whiteway J, Morson BC (1985) Elastosis in diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon. Gut 26:258–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Williams GT (1985) Commentary. Transitional mucosa of the large intestine. Histopathology 9:1237–1243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Williams GT, Rhodes J (1987) Collagenous colitis: disease or diversion? Br Med J 294:855–856Google Scholar
  173. Wolley RC, Schreiber K, Koss LG, Karas M, Sherman A (1982) DNA distribution in human colon carcinomas and its relationship to clinical behaviour. J Natl Cancer Inst 69:15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Wright SG, Tomkins AM (1978) Quantitative histology in giardiasis. J Clin Pathol 31:712–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Wyatt JI, Quirke P, Ward D, Johnson DJ, Dixon MF, Bird CC (1987) Comparison of histopathological and flow cytometric parameters in the prediction of prognosis in gastric cancer. J Pathol 152:233 AGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Sloan
  • D. C. Allen
  • P. W. Hamilton
  • P. C. H. Watt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations