Toxicology and Carcinogenicity of 1,3-Butadiene

  • R. L. Melnick
  • J. E. Huff
  • R. A. Miller
Part of the ILSI Monographs book series (ILSI MONOGRAPHS)


1,3-Butadiene (CAS No. 106-99-0) is a colorless, flammable, noncorrosive gas (boiling point: —4.4°C; vapour pressure at 20°C: 1900 mmHg) produced largely as a coproduct of ethylene production (Kirshenbaum 1978). Butadiene is a reactive material and can dimerize to 4-vinylcyclohexene. Because butadiene can form explosive peroxides in air, it is shipped with an inhibitor of peroxide formation, such as t-butylcatechol.


Exposure Concentration Acinar Cell Carcinoma Chamber Control Granulosa Cell Neoplasm Testicular Atrophy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Carpenter CP, Shaffer CB, Weil CS, Smyth HF Jr (1944) Studies on the inhalation of 1:3-butadiene; with a comparison of its narcotic effect with benzol, toluol, and styrene, and a note on the elimination of styrene by the human. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 26:69–78.Google Scholar
  2. Conner MK, Juo JE, Gutierrez de Gotera O (1983) Induction and rapid repair of sister-chromatid exchanges in multiple murine tissues in vivo by diepoxybutane. Mutat Res 108:251–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Crouch CN, Pullinger DH, Gaunt IF (1979) Inhalation toxicity studies with 1,3-butadiene 2. 3 month toxicity study in rats. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 40:796–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cunningham MJ, Choy WN, Arce GT, Rickard LB, Vlachos DA, Kinney LA, Sharff AM (1986) In vivo sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus induction studies with 1,3-butadiene in B6C3F1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Mutagenesis 1:449–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. de Meester C, Poncelet F, Roberfroid M, Mercier M (1978) Mutagenicity of butadiene and butadiene monoxide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 80:298–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Meester C, Poncelet F, Roberfroid M, Mercier M (1980) The mutagenicity of butadiene towards Salmonella typhimurium. Toxicol Lett 6:125–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haseman JK, Tharrington EC, Huff JE, McConnell EE (1986) Comparison of sitespecific and overall tumor incidence analyses for 81 recent National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity studies. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 6:155–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huff JE, Melnick RL, Solleveld HA, Haseman JK, Powers M, Miller RA (1985) Multiple organ carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene in B6C3F1 mice after 60 weeks of inhalation exposure. Science 227:548–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Irons RD (1989) Studies on the mechanism of butadiene-induced leukemogenesis: the potential role of endogenous murine leukemia virus. Environ Health Perspect (in press).Google Scholar
  10. Irons RD, Stillman WS, Cloyd MW (1987) Selective activation of endogenous ecotropic retrovirus in hematopoietic tissues of B6C3F1 mice during the preleukemic phase of 1,3-butadiene exposure. Virology 161:457–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kirshenbaum I (1978) Butadiene. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, vol 4, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 313–337.Google Scholar
  12. Malvoisin E, Roberfroid M (1982) Hepatic microsomal metabolism of 1,3-butadiene. Xenobiotica 12:137–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Malvoisin E, Lhoest G, Poncelet F, Roberfroid M, Mercier M (1979) Identification and quantitation of 1,2-epoxybutene-3 as the primary metabolite of 1,3-butadiene. J Chromatogr 178:419–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Matanoski GM, Santos-Burgoa C, Schwartz L (1989) Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing industry 1943–1982. Environ Health Perspect (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Melnick RL, Huff JE, Haseman JK, McConnell EE (1988) Chronic toxicity results and ongoing studies of 1,3-butadiene by the National Toxicology Program. Ann NY Acad Sci 534:648–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Melnick RL, Huff JE, Roycroft JH, Chou BJ, Miller RA (1989) Inhalation toxicology and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene in B6C3F1 mice following 65 weeks exposure. Environ Health Perspect (in press).Google Scholar
  17. Miller LM (1978) Investigations of selected potential environmental contaminants: butadiene and its oligomers. EPA-560/2-78-008. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  18. Morrow NL (1989) Industrial production and use of 1,3-butadiene. Environ Health Perspect (in press).Google Scholar
  19. National Toxicology Program (1984) Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 1,3-butadiene (CAS no 106-99-0) in B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies). NTP TR no 288, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  20. Owen PE, Glaister JR, Gaunt IF, Pullinger DH (1987) Inhalation toxicity studies with 1,3-butadiene 3. Two year toxicity/carcinogenicity study in rats. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 48:407–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sharief Y, Brown AM, Backer LC, Campbell JA, Westbrook-Collins B, Stead AG, Allen JW (1986) Sister chromatid exchange and chromosome aberration analyses in mice after in vivo exposure to acrylonitrile, styrene, or butadiene monoxide. Environ Mutagen 8:439–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shugaev BB (1969) Concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues as a measure of toxicity. Arch Environ Health 18:878–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Tice RR, Boucher R, Luke CA, Shelby MD (1987) Comparative cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow damage induced in male B6C3F1 mice by multiple exposures to gaseous 1,3-butadiene. Environ Mutagen 9:235–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Van Duuren BL, Nelson N, Orris L, Palmes ED, Schmitt FL (1963) Carcinogenicity of epoxides, lactones, and peroxy compounds. J NCI 31:41–55.Google Scholar
  25. Van Duuren BL, Orris L, Nelson N (1965) Carcinogenicity of epoxides, lactones, and peroxy compounds, pt II. J NCI 35:707–717.Google Scholar
  26. Van Duuren BL, Langseth L, Orris L, Teebor G, Nelson N, Kuschner M (1966) Carcinogenicity of epoxides, lactones, and peroxy compounds. IV. Tumor response in epithelial and connective tissue in mice and rats. J NCI 37:825–838.Google Scholar
  27. Wade MJ, Moyer JW, Hine CH (1979) Mutagenic action of a series of epoxides. Mutat Res 66:367–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. L. Melnick
    • 1
  • J. E. Huff
    • 1
  • R. A. Miller
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of Environmental Health SciencesResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  2. 2.Battelle Pacific Northwest LaboratoriesRichlandUSA

Personalised recommendations