Bird Migration pp 331-351 | Cite as

Optimal Bird Migration: The Relative Importance of Time, Energy, and Safety

  • T. Alerstam
  • Å. Lindström


“Optimization is the process of minimizing costs or maximizing benefits, or obtaining the best possible compromise between the two. Evolution by natural selection is a process of optimization” (R. McNeill Alexander 1982).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Alerstam
  • Å. Lindström
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EcologyUniversity of LundLundSweden

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