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Artengemeinschaften und Ökosysteme

  • Christian Wissel

Zusammenfassung

In der freien Natur enthalten größere terrestrische Areale oder Volumina Wasser Ansammlungen verschiedener Species in unterschiedlichen Mengen. Diese werden Artengemeinschaften (communities) genannt. Die Eigenschaften dieser Artengemeinschaften ergeben sich aus den Eigenschaften der Arten selbst und ihren Wechselwirkungen untereinander. Ökosysteme beinhalten Artengemeinschaften samt ihrer abiotischen Umwelt. Hier werden neben den biotischen Wechselwirkungen also auch die abiotischen Einflüsse betrachtet. Obwohl eine Unterscheidung der Begriffe Ökosystem und Artengemeinschaft mitunter nützlich sein kann, wollen wir hier darauf verzichten. In unseren Modellen sind die abiotischen Einflüsse immer implizit berücksichtigt. Ihre Auswirkung auf Geburts- und Sterbeprozesse ist in den Modellparametern enthalten. Die jahreszeitlichen Oszillationen der mittleren Temperatur und des Lichteinfalls z. B. führen zu entsprechenden periodischen Schwankungen in der Primärproduktion der Pflanzen, d. h. der Zunahme von pflanzlicher Biomasse, was man im Modell direkt berücksichtigen kann (s. Gl. 4.3 in Abschn. 4.1.1). Ebenso wie bei Populationen kann die Begrenzung eines Ökosystems schwierig sein. Man wählt in der Regel einen größeren Lebensraum, welcher aus biologischer Sicht eine gewisse Einheitlichkeit und eine typische Gliederung zeigt und sich somit von angrenzenden Gebieten unterscheidet. Wie schon bei Populationen soll der Austausch von Individuen mit benachbarten Systemen relativ gering sein.

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Weiterführende Literatur

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Wissel
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereiche Biologie und PhysikPhilipps-Universität MarburgMarburgDeutschland

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