The Enteric Immune Response to Shigella Antigens
The optimal regimen for stimulating a secretory IgA response in the intestine has yet to be determined. It is well known that parenteral administration of antigen will result in the formation of a systemic immune response directed to specific determinants on that antigen. Depending on the characteristics of the antigen, its dose, and the genetic capabilities of the animal, a humoral and/or cellular immune responses will result. While similar mechanisms must occur to stimulate immunity to antigens which are present in mucosal surfaces, including the gastrointestinal tract, less is known about the specific form or dose of antigens which would best elicit the production of immunity in the mucosa itself. It has been known for over a century that oral administration of antigens can elicit protection to some enteric infections. The discovery that IgA is the main antibody on mucosal surfaces provided the key for beginning definitive work to understand the biology of the mucosal immune system (Tomasi et al. 1965). While many tissues (bronchial mucosa, mammary glands, conjunctiva, genitourinary tract, biliary tract, etc.) are involved with the mucosal immune response, the gastrointestinal tract is overwhelmingly the major site of antigenic stimulation and immune response for secretory IgA (Brandtzaeg 1985). Recent studies indicate that a combination of parenteral and oral administration of antigens may enhance the initial secretory IgA response to Shigella flexneri (Keren et al. 1988). This review explores the mechanism for stimulation of the secretory IgA memory response to shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to Shiga toxin.
KeywordsMesenteric Lymph Node Shiga Toxin Mucosal Immune Response Shigella Flexneri Ileal Loop
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