Versatile Apparatuses for Electrogene Mapping, Electrophoresis and Electrofusion

  • K. Yoshida
  • T. Kondo
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 9)

Abstract

Electrophoresis is one of the most powerful and fundamental techniques for separation and analysis of proteins and nucleic acids which has been widely accepted for both preparative and analytical purposes (Andrews 1981; Hames and Rickwood 1981; Rickwood and Hames 1982; Maugh II 1983), especially in the fields of recombinant DNA and nucleic acid sequencing. There are only a few investigations that do not utilize electrophoretic techniques (Rickwood and Hames 1982; Weissbach and Weissbach 1986).

Keywords

Maize Platinum Rubber Sedimentation Hexagonal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anand R (1986) Pulsed field gel electrophoresis: a technique for fractionating large DNA molecules. Trends Genet 2: 278–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews AT (1981) Electrophoresis: theory, techniques, and biochemical and clinical applications. Clarendon, New York OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow DP, Lehrach H (1987) Genetics by gel electrophoresis: the impact of pulsed field gel electrophoresis on mammalian genetics. Trends Genet 3: 167–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates GW (1985) Electrical fusion for optimal formation of protoplast heterokaryons in Nicotiana. Planta 165: 217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates GW, Hasenkampf CA (1985) Culture of plant somatic hybrids following electric fusion. Theor Appl Genet 70: 227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burke DT, Carle GF, Olson CM (1987) Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of artificial chromosome vectors. Science 236: 806–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carle GF, Olson MV (1985a) Separation of chromosomal DNA molecules from yeast by orthogonalfield-alternation gel electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids Res 12: 5647–5664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carle GF, Olson MV (1985b) An electrophoretic karyotype for yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:3756–3760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carle GF, Frank M, Olson MV (1986) Electrophoretic separations of large DNA molecules by periodic inversion of the electric field. Science 232: 65–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chu G, Vollrath D, Davis RW (1986) Separation of large DNA molecules by contour-clamped homogeneous electric fields. Science 234: 1582–1585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cook PR (1984) A general method for preparing intact nuclear DNA. EMBO J 3: 1837–1842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gardiner K, Laas W, Patterson D (1986) Fractionation of large mammalian DNA restriction frag-ments using vertical pulsed-field gradient gel electrophoresis. Somatic Cell Mol Genet 12: 185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hames BD, Rickwood D (eds) (1981) Gel electrophoresis of proteins. IRL, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Heiter P, Pridmore D, Hegemann JH, Thomas M, Davis RW, Philippsen P (1985) Functional selection and analysis of yeast centromeric DNA. Cell 42: 913–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holde KE van (1971) Physical biochemistry. Prentics-Hall, Inglewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  16. Johnson JJ, Borst P (1986) Mapping of VSG genes on large expression-site chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei separated by pulsed-field gradient electrophoresis. Gene 43: 213–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kao KN, Michayluk MR (1974) A method for high frequency intergenetic fusion of plant protoplast. Planta 115: 355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Keller WA, Melchers G (1973) The effect of high pH and calcium on tobacco leaf protoplast fusion. Z Naturforsch 28C:737–741Google Scholar
  19. King RC (ed) (1974) Handbook of genetics, vol 2. Plants, plant viruses, and protists. Plenum, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Lawrance SK, Smith CL, Srivastava R, Cantor CR, Weissman SM (1987) Megabase-scale mapping of the HLA gene complex by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Science 235: 1387–1390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maugh II TH (1983) A survey of separative techniques. Science 222: 259–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Meyerowitz EM, Pruitt RE (1985) Arabidopsis thaliana and plant molecular genetics. Science 229: 1214–1218Google Scholar
  23. Morikawa H, Sugino M, Yasuyuki H, Takeda J, Senda M, Hirai A, Yamada Y (1986) Interspecific plant hybridization by electrofusion in Nicotiana. Biotechnology 4: 57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nagata N (1984) Fusion of somatic cells. In: Linskens HF, Heslop-Harrison J (eds) Cellular interactions. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 491–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Neumann E, Gerisch G, Opatz K (1980) Cell fusion induced by high electric impulses applied Dictyostelium. Naturwissenschaften 67: 414–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Neumann E, Rosenheck K (1972) Permeability changes induced by electric impulses in vesicular membranes. J Membr Biol 10: 279–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ohyama K, Fukuzawa H, Kohchi T, Shirai H, Sano T, Sano S, Umesono K, Shiki Y, Takeuchi M, Chang Z, Aota S, Inokuchi H, Ozeki H (1986) Chloroplast gene organization deduced from complete sequence of liverwort Marchantia polymorpha chloroplast DNA. Nature (Lond) 322: 572–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ono K, Okamoto K (1984) Isolation and culture of protoplasts from the liverwort cell suspension cultures and the moss protonemata. J Hattori Bot Lab 56: 201–207Google Scholar
  29. Pohl HA (1978) Dielectrophoresis. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Rickwood D, Hames BD (eds) (1982) Gel electrophoresis of nucleic acid. IRL, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. Schwartz DC, Cantor CR (1984) Separation of yeast chromosome-size DNA’s by pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis. Cell 37: 67–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Senda M, Takeda J, Abe S, Nakamura T (1979) Induction of cell fusion of plant protoplasts by electrical stimulation. Plant Cell Physiol 20: 1441–1443Google Scholar
  33. Shen D, Wang Z, Wu M (1987) Gene mapping on maize pachytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization. Chromosoma 95: 311–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shinozaki K, Ohme M, Tanaka M, Wakasugi T, Hayashida N, Matsubayashi T, Zaita N, Chunwongse J, Obokata J, Shinozaki K, Ohto C, Torazawa K, Meng BY, Sugita M, Deno H, Kamogashira T, Yamada K, Kusuda J, Takaiwa F, Kato A, Tohdoh N, Shimada H, Sugiura M (1986) The complete nucleotide sequence of the tobacco chloroplast genome: its gene organization and expression. EMBO J 5: 2043–2049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith CL, Cantor CR (1986) Analysis of genome organization and rearrangements by pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis. In: Setlow J, Hollaender A (eds) Genetic engineering, vol. 8. Plenum Press, New York London, pp 45–70Google Scholar
  36. Smith CL, Econome JG, Schutt A, Kloc S, Cantor CR (1987) A physical map of Escherichia coli K12 genome. Science 236: 1448–1453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tempelaar MJ, Jones MGK (1985 a) Fusion characteristics of plant protoplasts in electric fields. Planta 165: 205–216Google Scholar
  38. Tempelaar MJ, Jones MGK (1985 b) Direct electrofusion between protoplasts with different responses in a mass fusion system. Plant Cell Rep 4: 92–95Google Scholar
  39. Watts JW, King JM (1984) A simple method for large scale electrofusion and culture of plant protoplast. Biosci Rep 4: 335–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Watts JW, Doonan JH, Cove DJ, King M (1985) Production of somatic hybrids of moss by electrofusion. Mol Gen Genet 199: 349–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Weissbach A, Weissbach H (eds) (1986) Methods in enzymology, vol 118. Plant molecular biology. Academic Press, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Yoshida K (1983a) A versatile apparatus for electrophoresis including isoelectrofocusing and its performances. Ann Biochem 129: 37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yoshida K (1983b) A highly simplified horizontal electrophoretic apparatus including a handmade power supply and its application. Ann Biochem 130: 246–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yoshida K (1983c) Appendix: Deviation of I-F relationship from Ohm’s law and theory of electrolyte conductance and its computer simulation. Ann Biochem 130: 256–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yoshida K (1985) Mitochondria transplantation and transformation in yeasts: Stepwise transformation as a general transformation method and electrogene mapping. IF Rep 13: 143–150 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  46. Yoshida K (1986) Yeast genetic analysis programs (YGAP) for a microcomputer. Yeast 2: S438Google Scholar
  47. Yoshida K, Kondo T (1987) Construction of a versatile micro-computer-controlled pulsed field elec- trophoretic apparatus and its application to DNA separation. Seikagaku 59: 738 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  48. Yoshida K, Hisatomi T, Yanagishima N (1987) Sexual behavior and its pheromonal regulation in ascosporogenous yeasts (Plenary lecture). XIIth International Spec Symp Genetics of non-conventional yeasts, Weimar. Abstr PLI, p 1Google Scholar
  49. Yoshida K, Hisatomi T, Yanagishima (1989) J Basic Microbiol 2: 99–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zimmermann U (1982) Electric field-mediated fusion and related electrical phenomena. Biochem Biophys Acta 694: 227–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Zimmermann U, Scheurich P (1981) High frequency fusion of plant protoplast by electric fields. Planta 151: 26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zimmermann U, Pilwat G, Riemann F (1974) Dielectric breakdown of cell membranes. Biophys J 14: 881–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

References for Note Added in Proof

  1. Cantor CR, Gaal A, Smith CL (1988) High-resolution separation and accurate size determination in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA. 3. Effect of electrical field shape. Biochemistry 27: 9216–9221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Davies KE (ed) (1988) Genome analysis — a practical approach. IRL, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. Deutsch JM, Madden TL (1989) Theoretical studies during gel electrophoresis. J Chem Phys 90: 2476–2485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ganal MW, Young ND, Tanksley SD (1989) Pulsed field gel electrophoresis and physical mapping of large DNA fragments in the Tm-2a region of chromosome 9 in tomato. Mol gen genet 215: 359–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lande M, Noolandi J, Turmel C, Brousseau R, Rousseau J, Slater GW (1988) Scrambling of bands in gel electrophoresis of DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 16: 5427–5437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mathew KM, Smith CL, Cantor CR (1988a) High-resolution separation and accurate size determination in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA. 1. DNA size standards and the effect of agarose and temperature. Biochemistry 27: 9204–9210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mathew KM, Smith CL, Cantor CR ( 1988 b) High-resolution separation and accurate size determination in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA. 2. Effect of pulse time and electric field strength and implications for models of the separation process. Biochemistry 27: 9210–9216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mathew KM, Hui CF, Smith CL, Cantor CR (1988c) High-resolution separation and accurate size determination in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA. 4. Influence of DNA topology. Biochemistry 27: 9222–9226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Schwartz DC, Koval M (1989) Conformational dynamics of individual DNA molecules during gel electrophoresis. Nature (London) 338: 520–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Slater GW, Rousseau J, Noolandi J (1988) On the stretching of DNA in the reptation theories of gel electrophoresis. Biopolymers 26: 863–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Smith SB, Aldridge PK, Callis JB (1989) Observation of individual DNA molecules undergoing gel electrophoresis. Science 243: 203–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Southern EM, Anand R, Fletcher DS (1987) A model for the separation of large DNA molecules crossed field gel electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids Res 15: 5925–5943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Yoshida K, Kondo T (1988) Construction of a versatile apparatus for pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Protein Nucleic Acid Enzyme 34: 2514–2526 (in Japanese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Yoshida
    • 1
  • T. Kondo
    • 2
  1. 1.Botanical Institute, Faculty of ScienceHiroshima UniversityHiroshima 730Japan
  2. 2.National Institute for Basic BiologyOkazaki 444Japan

Personalised recommendations