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CT and MR Imaging of Brain Tumors

  • Claus Claussen
  • Rudolf Fahlbusch
  • Roland Felix
  • Thomas Grumme
  • Jürgen Heinzerling
  • José R. Iglesias-Rozas
  • Ekkehard Kazner
  • Konrad Kretzschmar
  • Michael Laniado
  • Wolfgang Lanksch
  • Wibke Müller-Forell
  • Thomas Hans Newton
  • Wolfgang Schörner
  • Gerhard Schroth
  • Barbara Schulz
  • Otto Stochdorph
  • Gordon Sze
  • Sigurd Wende

Abstract

Our clinical population numbered 8516 patients with primary and metastatic brain tumors who underwent evaluation by computed tomography at the neurosurgical and neuroradiologic departments of the Berlin, Mainz, and Munich centers from 1975 to 1986 and at the Neurosurgical Department of Augsburg Central Hospital from 1983 to 1986. Table 5 lists all the tumors having an incidence greater than 1% in the total population; 98% of the lesions were confirmed histologically (open surgery, stereotactic biopsy, autopsy). “Rare” intracranial tumors having an incidence no greater than 1% are listed in Table 6. The frequencies of the individual tumor types correlate well with the statistical data reported by Cushing (1932), Olivecrona (1967), and Zülch (1986) for large clinical series.

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D.2. Meningeal Tumors

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D.3. Neurinomas

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D.4. Pituitary Adenomas

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D.5. Hemangioblastomas

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D.6. Dysontogenetic Tumors

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D.7. Intracranial Tumors of Skeletal Origin

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  8. Bradac GB, Schramm J, Grumme T, Simon RS (1978b) CT of the base of the skull. Neuroradiology 17:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brusis T, Modder U (1984) HNO Röntgen-Aufnahmetechnik und Normalbefunde. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  10. Brusis T, Modder U (1986) HNO Röntgen-Atlas. Pathologische Befunde. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  11. Bydder GM, Kingsley DPE, Brown J, Niendorf HP, Young IR (1985) MR imaging of meningiomas including studies with and without gadolinium-DTPA. J Comp Assist Tomogr 9:690–697Google Scholar
  12. Caillé JM, Dop A, Constant P, Renaud-Salis JL (1977) CAT studies of tumors of the skull base and face. In: du Boulay GH, Moseley IF (eds) Computerised axial tomography in clinical practice. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 139–146Google Scholar
  13. Carter BL, Carmody CS (1978) Computed tomography of the face and neck. Semin Röntgenol 13:257–266Google Scholar
  14. Caughran M, White TJ III, Gerald B, Gardner G (1980) Computed tomography of jugulotympanic paragangliomas. J Comp Assist Tomogr 4:194–198Google Scholar
  15. Chandler JR, Goulding R, Moskowitz L, Quencer R (1984) Nasopharyngeal angiofibromas: staging and management. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 93:322–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Claussen C, Lochner B (1983) Dynamische Computertomographie. Grundlagen und klinische Anwendung. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  17. Claussen C, Singer R (1979) Progress in the diagnosis of cranio-facial injuries and tumors by computer tomography. J Maxillofac Surg 7:210–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Claussen C, Lohkamp F, Spenneberg H, Krastel A, Singer R (1978) Computertomographie des Gesichtsschädels. 2. Kongreß der internat. Ges für Kiefer- und Gesichtschir, 1.–3. Sept 1976, Basel, und In: Pape H, Bethman E (eds) Acta Chir Max, Fac. Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  19. Claussen C, Lochner B, Köhler D, Banzer D (1982) Dynamische Computertomographie bei Gesichtsschädeltumoren. Fortschr Röntgenstr 136:144–150Google Scholar
  20. Daniels DL, Williams AL, Haughton VM (1984) Jugular foramen: anatomic and computed tomography study. AJR 142:153–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. De la Cruz A (1984) Polytomographic evaluation of the clivus and petrous apices: a new view. Laryngoscope 94:153–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dickson RI, Flores AD (1985) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: evaluation of 134 patients treated between 1971–1980. Laryngoscope 95:276–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dillon WP, Mills CM, Kjos BO, DeGroot H, Brant-Zawadzki M (1984) Magnetic resonance imaging of the nasopharynx. Radiology 152:731–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dop A, Constant P, Renaud-Salis JL, Caillé JM (1976) Interès de la tomodensitométrie en pathologie tumorale de la base du crane du massif facial. J Neuroradiol 3:193–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Duncavage JA, Campbell BH, Hanson G A, Kun LE, Hanson RM, Toohill RJ, Malin TC (1983) Diagnosis of malignant lymphomas of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx. Laryngoscope 93:1276–1280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dutton J (1978) Intracranial solitary Chondrome. J Neurosurg 49:460–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Freyschmidt J (1980) Knochenerkrankungen im Erwachsenenalter. Röntgenologische Diagnose und Differentialdiagnose. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Galanski M, Dickob M, Wittkowski W (1986) CT-Zisternographie der basalen Zisternen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 145:149–157Google Scholar
  29. Graber HR, Zaunbauer W, Haertel M (1986) Zur computertomographischen Diagnose und Differentialdiagnose maligner Nasennebenhöhlentumoren. Fortschr Röntgenstr 144:405–412Google Scholar
  30. Grodd W, Lenz M, Baumann R, Schroth G (1984) Kernspintomographische Untersuchungen des Gesichtsschädels. Fortschr Röntgenstr 141:517–524Google Scholar
  31. Hammerschlag SB, Wolpert SM, Carter BL (1977) Computed tomography of the skull base. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1:75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hanafee WN, Hoover HA (1983) Differential diagnosis of nasopharyngeal tumors by computed tomography scanning. Arch Otolaryngol 109:43–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Harrison DFN (1984) Osseous and fibro-osseous conditions affecting the craniofacial bones. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 93:199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Helpap B (1978) Extraadrenale Paraganglien und Paraganglions. Normale und pathologische Anatomie, Bd 37. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 1–89Google Scholar
  35. Hesselink JR, New PF, Davis KR, Weber AL, Robertson GH, Taveras JM (1978) Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and face. Part I: normal anatomy. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2:559–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Howell CG, van Tessel P, Gammal TE (1984) High resolution computed tomography in neonatal nasopharyngeal teratoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 8:1179–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Huk W, Schiefer W (1978) Computertomographie bei Prozessen der Schädelbasis und der Orbitae: Kombinierte Anwendung von Horizontal- und Frontalschnitten. Fortschr Röntgenstr 128:8–11Google Scholar
  38. Irnberger T (1985) Die fibröse Knochendysplasie und das ossifizierende Knochenfibrom im Orbitalen und periorbitalen Bereich unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der CT. Fortschr Röntgenstr 143:569–574Google Scholar
  39. Ischebeck W, Thal HU, Nabakowski R (1978) Computerized tomography of the posterior fossa and the upper cervical spine. Adv Neurosurg 5:171–175Google Scholar
  40. Jend-Rossmann I, Crone-Münzebrock W, Grabbe E (1984) Die Computertomographie der Schädelbasisfrakturen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 140:147–151Google Scholar
  41. Kido DK, Gould R, Taati F, Duncan A, Schnur J (1978) Comparative sensitivity of CT scans, radiographs and radionuclide bone scans in detecting metastatic calvarial lesions. Radiology 128:371–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. König H, Kurtz B (1984) Computertomographie der Felsenbeine. Fortschr Röntgenstr 141:129–135Google Scholar
  43. König H, Kurtz B, Strohm M (1984) Hochauflösende und dynamische Computertomographie in der Diagnostik von Glomus-tympanicum- und Glomus-jugulare-Tumoren. Fortschr Röntgenstr 141:642–646Google Scholar
  44. König H, Lenz M, Sauter R (1986) Temporal bone region: high-resolution MR imaging using surface coils. Radiology 159:191–194Google Scholar
  45. Köster O, Strähler-Pohl H J (1985) Stellenwert der hochauflösenden CT in der Diagnostik der erworbenen Mittelohrcholesteatome. Fortschr Röntgenstr 143:322–326Google Scholar
  46. Krayenbühl H, Yasargil MG (1975) Cranial chordomas. Progr Neurol Surg 6:435–463Google Scholar
  47. Krayenbühl H, Yasargil MG (1979) Zerebrale Angiographie für Klinik und Praxis, 3. Aufl. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  48. Latack JT, Kartush JM, Kemink JL, Graham MD, Knake JE (1985) Epidermoidomas of the cerebellopontine angle and temporal bone: CT and MR aspects. Radiology 157:361–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Latack JT, Hutchinson RJ, Heyn RM (1987) Imaging of rhabdomyosarcomas of the head and neck. AJR 8:353–359Google Scholar
  50. Lenz M, König H, Sauter R, Schrader M (1985) Kernspintomographie bei Erkrankungen im Bereich des Felsenbeins. Fortschr Röntgenstr 143:623–634Google Scholar
  51. Lenz M, König H, Sauter R, Schrader M (1985) Kernspintomographie des Felsenbeins und Kleinhirnbrückenwinkels. Fortschr Röntgenstr 143:1–8Google Scholar
  52. Liliequist B, Forseil A (1976) Computertomography of the neurocranium. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 17:399–404Google Scholar
  53. Lloyd GAS, Du Boulay GH, Phelps PD, Pullicino P (1979) The demonstration of the auditory ossicles by high resolution CT. Neuroradiology 18:243–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lohkamp F, Claussen C (1977) Computertomographie des Gesichtsschädels (Teil I). Darstellbarkeit bestimmter Strukturen und tiefliegender Regionen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 126:292–299Google Scholar
  55. Lohkamp F, Claussen C (1977) Die Bedeutung der Computertomographie für die TNM-Klassifikation der Gesichtsschädelmalignome im Bereich der Nasennebenhöhle, des Nasopharynx und der Parotis. Laryngol Rhinol Otol (Stuttg) 56:739–748Google Scholar
  56. Lohkamp F, Claussen C, Spenneberg H (1977) Computertomographie des Gesichtsschädels (Teil II). Pathologische Veränderungen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 126:513–520Google Scholar
  57. Lucarelli G, Fornari M, Savoiardo M (1980) Angiography and computerized tomography in the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst of the skull. J Neurosurg 53:113–116Google Scholar
  58. Mafee MF, Valvassori GE, Shugar MA, Yannias DA, Dobben GD (1983) High resolution and dynamic sequential computed tomography. Use in the evaluation of glomus complex tumors. Arch Otolaryngol 109:691–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
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D.8. Locally Invasive Tumors

  1. Alvarez-Berdecia A, Schut I, Bruce DA (1979) Localized primary intracranial Ewing’s sarcoma of the orbital roof. J Neurosurg 50:811–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bass IS, Haller JO, Berdon WE, Barlow B, Carsen G, Khakoo Y (1985) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical and radiographic findings in children. Radiology 156:651–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker H, Grau H, Hacker H, Ploder KW (1978) The base of the skull: a comparison of computed and conventional tomography. J Comp Assist Tomogr 2:113–118Google Scholar
  4. Biller J, Heredia S, Palacios E, Fine M (1980) Malignant nasopharyngeal tumors. Surg Neurol 14:197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradac GB, Simon RS, Grumme T, Schramm J (1977a) Limitations of computed tomography for diagnostic neuroradiology. Neuroradiology 13:243–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradac GB, Simon RS, Grumme T (1977b) Routine neuro-radiological diagnosis with the EMI 5005 body scanner. Neuroradiology 14:133–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradac GB, Schramm J, Grumme T, Simon RS (1978a) Wert und Grenzen der Computertomographie in der Studie von Prozessen der Schädelbasis. Neuroradiology 16:438–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradac GB, Schramm J, Grumme T, Simon RS (1978b) CT of the base of the skull. Neuroradiology 17:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brusis T, Modder U (1984) HNO Röntgen-Aufnahmetechnik und Normalbefunde. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  10. Brusis T, Modder U (1986) HNO Röntgen-Atlas. Pathologische Befunde. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  11. Bydder GM, Kingsley DPE, Brown J, Niendorf HP, Young IR (1985) MR imaging of meningiomas including studies with and without gadolinium-DTPA. J Comp Assist Tomogr 9:690–697Google Scholar
  12. Caillé JM, Dop A, Constant P, Renaud-Salis JL (1977) CAT studies of tumors of the skull base and face. In: du Boulay GH, Moseley IF (eds) Computerised axial tomography in clinical practice. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 139–146Google Scholar
  13. Carter BL, Carmody CS (1978) Computed tomography of the face and neck. Semin Röntgenol 13:257–266Google Scholar
  14. Caughran M, White TJ III, Gerald B, Gardner G (1980) Computed tomography of jugulotympanic paragangliomas. J Comp Assist Tomogr 4:194–198Google Scholar
  15. Chandler JR, Goulding R, Moskowitz L, Quencer R (1984) Nasopharyngeal angiofibromas: staging and management. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 93:322–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Claussen C, Lochner B (1983) Dynamische Computertomographie. Grundlagen und klinische Anwendung. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  17. Claussen C, Singer R (1979) Progress in the diagnosis of cranio-facial injuries and tumors by computer tomography. J Maxillofac Surg 7:210–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Claussen C, Lohkamp F, Spenneberg H, Krastel A, Singer R (1978) Computertomographie des Gesichtsschädels. 2. Kongreß der internat. Ges für Kiefer- und Gesichtschir, 1.–3. Sept 1976, Basel, und In: Pape H, Bethman E (eds) Acta Chir Max, Fac. Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  19. Claussen C, Lochner B, Köhler D, Banzer D (1982) Dynamische Computertomographie bei Gesichtsschädeltumoren. Fortschr Röntgenstr 136:144–150Google Scholar
  20. Daniels DL, Williams AL, Haughton VM (1984) Jugular foramen: anatomic and computed tomography study. AJR 142:153–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. De la Cruz A (1984) Polytomographic evaluation of the clivus and petrous apices: a new view. Laryngoscope 94:153–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dickson RI, Flores AD (1985) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: evaluation of 134 patients treated between 1971–1980. Laryngoscope 95:276–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dillon WP, Mills CM, Kjos BO, DeGroot H, Brant-Zawadzki M (1984) Magnetic resonance imaging of the nasopharynx. Radiology 152:731–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dop A, Constant P, Renaud-Salis JL, Caillé JM (1976) Interès de la tomodensitométrie en pathologie tumorale de la base du crane du massif facial. J Neuroradiol 3:193–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Duncavage JA, Campbell BH, Hanson G A, Kun LE, Hanson RM, Toohill RJ, Malin TC (1983) Diagnosis of malignant lymphomas of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx. Laryngoscope 93:1276–1280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dutton J (1978) Intracranial solitary Chondrome. J Neurosurg 49:460–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Freyschmidt J (1980) Knochenerkrankungen im Erwachsenenalter. Röntgenologische Diagnose und Differentialdiagnose. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Galanski M, Dickob M, Wittkowski W (1986) CT-Zisternographie der basalen Zisternen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 145:149–157Google Scholar
  29. Graber HR, Zaunbauer W, Haertel M (1986) Zur computertomographischen Diagnose und Differentialdiagnose maligner Nasennebenhöhlentumoren. Fortschr Röntgenstr 144:405–412Google Scholar
  30. Grodd W, Lenz M, Baumann R, Schroth G (1984) Kernspintomographische Untersuchungen des Gesichtsschädels. Fortschr Röntgenstr 141:517–524Google Scholar
  31. Hammerschlag SB, Wolpert SM, Carter BL (1977) Computed tomography of the skull base. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1:75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hanafee WN, Hoover HA (1983) Differential diagnosis of nasopharyngeal tumors by computed tomography scanning. Arch Otolaryngol 109:43–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Harrison DFN (1984) Osseous and fibro-osseous conditions affecting the craniofacial bones. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 93:199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Helpap B (1978) Extraadrenale Paraganglien und Paraganglions. Normale und pathologische Anatomie, Bd 37. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 1–89Google Scholar
  35. Hesselink JR, New PF, Davis KR, Weber AL, Robertson GH, Taveras JM (1978) Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and face. Part I: normal anatomy. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2:559–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Howell CG, van Tessel P, Gammal TE (1984) High resolution computed tomography in neonatal nasopharyngeal teratoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 8:1179–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Huk W, Schiefer W (1978) Computertomographie bei Prozessen der Schädelbasis und der Orbitae: Kombinierte Anwendung von Horizontal- und Frontalschnitten. Fortschr Röntgenstr 128:8–11Google Scholar
  38. Irnberger T (1985) Die fibröse Knochendysplasie und das ossifizierende Knochenfibrom im Orbitalen und periorbitalen Bereich unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der CT. Fortschr Röntgenstr 143:569–574Google Scholar
  39. Ischebeck W, Thal HU, Nabakowski R (1978) Computerized tomography of the posterior fossa and the upper cervical spine. Adv Neurosurg 5:171–175Google Scholar
  40. Jend-Rossmann I, Crone-Münzebrock W, Grabbe E (1984) Die Computertomographie der Schädelbasisfrakturen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 140:147–151Google Scholar
  41. Kido DK, Gould R, Taati F, Duncan A, Schnur J (1978) Comparative sensitivity of CT scans, radiographs and radionuclide bone scans in detecting metastatic calvarial lesions. Radiology 128:371–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. König H, Kurtz B (1984) Computertomographie der Felsenbeine. Fortschr Röntgenstr 141:129–135Google Scholar
  43. König H, Kurtz B, Strohm M (1984) Hochauflösende und dynamische Computertomographie in der Diagnostik von Glomus-tympanicum- und Glomus-jugulare-Tumoren. Fortschr Röntgenstr 141:642–646Google Scholar
  44. König H, Lenz M, Sauter R (1986) Temporal bone region: high-resolution MR imaging using surface coils. Radiology 159:191–194Google Scholar
  45. Köster O, Strähler-Pohl H J (1985) Stellenwert der hochauflösenden CT in der Diagnostik der erworbenen Mittelohrcholesteatome. Fortschr Röntgenstr 143:322–326Google Scholar
  46. Krayenbühl H, Yasargil MG (1975) Cranial chordomas. Progr Neurol Surg 6:435–463Google Scholar
  47. Krayenbühl H, Yasargil MG (1979) Zerebrale Angiographie für Klinik und Praxis, 3. Aufl. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  48. Latack JT, Kartush JM, Kemink JL, Graham MD, Knake JE (1985) Epidermoidomas of the cerebellopontine angle and temporal bone: CT and MR aspects. Radiology 157:361–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Latack JT, Hutchinson RJ, Heyn RM (1987) Imaging of rhabdomyosarcomas of the head and neck. AJR 8:353–359Google Scholar
  50. Lenz M, König H, Sauter R, Schrader M (1985) Kernspintomographie bei Erkrankungen im Bereich des Felsenbeins. Fortschr Röntgenstr 143:623–634Google Scholar
  51. Lenz M, König H, Sauter R, Schrader M (1985) Kernspintomographie des Felsenbeins und Kleinhirnbrückenwinkels. Fortschr Röntgenstr 143:1–8Google Scholar
  52. Liliequist B, Forseil A (1976) Computertomography of the neurocranium. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 17:399–404Google Scholar
  53. Lloyd GAS, Du Boulay GH, Phelps PD, Pullicino P (1979) The demonstration of the auditory ossicles by high resolution CT. Neuroradiology 18:243–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lohkamp F, Claussen C (1977) Computertomographie des Gesichtsschädels (Teil I). Darstellbarkeit bestimmter Strukturen und tiefliegender Regionen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 126:292–299Google Scholar
  55. Lohkamp F, Claussen C (1977) Die Bedeutung der Computertomographie für die TNM-Klassifikation der Gesichtsschädelmalignome im Bereich der Nasennebenhöhle, des Nasopharynx und der Parotis. Laryngol Rhinol Otol (Stuttg) 56:739–748Google Scholar
  56. Lohkamp F, Claussen C, Spenneberg H (1977) Computertomographie des Gesichtsschädels (Teil II). Pathologische Veränderungen. Fortschr Röntgenstr 126:513–520Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claus Claussen
    • 1
  • Rudolf Fahlbusch
    • 2
  • Roland Felix
    • 1
  • Thomas Grumme
    • 3
  • Jürgen Heinzerling
    • 4
  • José R. Iglesias-Rozas
    • 5
  • Ekkehard Kazner
    • 1
  • Konrad Kretzschmar
    • 6
  • Michael Laniado
    • 7
  • Wolfgang Lanksch
    • 8
  • Wibke Müller-Forell
    • 9
  • Thomas Hans Newton
    • 10
  • Wolfgang Schörner
    • 7
  • Gerhard Schroth
    • 11
  • Barbara Schulz
    • 12
  • Otto Stochdorph
    • 13
  • Gordon Sze
    • 14
  • Sigurd Wende
    • 6
  1. 1.Freien Universität Berlin, Standort CharlottenburgBerlin 19Germany
  2. 2.Universität Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  3. 3.Zentralklinikum AugsburgAugsburgGermany
  4. 4.C.H.F. MüllerUB der Philips GmbHHamburg 63Germany
  5. 5.Standort Charlottenburg und Standort WeddingAbteilung für Neurochirurgie der Universitätskliniken Rudolf Virchow der Freien Universität BerlinBerlin 65Germany
  6. 6.Johannes Gutenberg-UniversitätMainzGermany
  7. 7.Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik der Universitätskliniken Rudolf VirchowFreien Universität Berlin, Standort CharlottenburgBerlin 19Germany
  8. 8.Ludwig Maximilians-UniversitätMünchen 70Germany
  9. 9.Abteilung für NeuroradiologieJohannes Gutenberg-UniversitätMainzGermany
  10. 10.Department of RadiologyUniversity of California Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  11. 11.Abteilung für NeuroradiologieUniversität TübingenTübingenGermany
  12. 12.Standort WeddingUniversitätskliniken Rudolf Virchow der Freien Universität BerlinBerlin 65Germany
  13. 13.Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenGautingGermany
  14. 14.Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterCornell University Medical CollegeNew York CityUSA

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