Practicability of Transesophageal Echocardiography in Conscious Patients

  • W. G. Daniel
  • A. Mügge
  • C. Eschenbruch
  • P. R. Lichtlen
Conference paper

Abstract

Since the initial description by Frazin et al. in 1976 [1], and in particular since the incorporation of phased array technology into transducers mounted at the tip of a modified gastroscope [2], transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been increasingly used in clinical cardiology — at least in Europe and Japan. In the United States and elsewhere, however, this technique became accepted only slowly over the years; this was due not only to the slight discomfort for the patient associated with a TEE examination but predominantly to safety considerations concerning the introduction and manipulation of the esophageal transducer under optically not controlled conditions in patients with more or less severe heart diseases.

Keywords

Europe Diazepam Cardiol Lidocaine Endocarditis 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. G. Daniel
  • A. Mügge
  • C. Eschenbruch
  • P. R. Lichtlen

There are no affiliations available

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