Influenza Virus Mediated Membrane Fusion: The Identification of Fusion Intermediates Using Modern Cryotechniques
Higher life-forms have evolved in the course of evolution by virtue of (cellular) compartmentalization. Each cellular compartment (nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, etc..) is surrounded by one or two membranes and has a unique structure and composition along with a unique cellular function. Since most of the constituents of the different compartments are synthesized centrally in the cell, a highly efficient sorting and targeting machinery must exist in order to create and maintain the differences in composition between the individual cellular compartments. An important part of this sorting and targeting machinery is vesicular transport, in which membrane fusion is the key event.
KeywordsInfluenza Virus Membrane Fusion Fracture Face Liposomal Membrane Fusion Activity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Blumenthal R (1987) Membrane Fusion. In Current Topics in Membranes and Transport (Klausner RD, Van Renswoude J, Kempf C, eds) Vol 29, pp 203–254. Academic Press OrlandoGoogle Scholar
- De Kruijff B, Cullis PR, Verkleij AJ, Hope MJ, Van Echteid CJA, Taraschi TF (1985a) Lipid polymorphism and membrane function. In The Enzymes of Biological Membranes (Martonosi AN, ed) pp 131–204. Plenum Press New YorkGoogle Scholar
- De Kruijff B, Cullis PR, Verkleij AJ, Hope MJ, Van Echteid CJA, Taraschi TF, Van Hoogevest P, Killian JA, Rietveld A, Van Der Steen ATM (1985b). In Progress in Protein-Lipid Interactions (Watts A, de Pont JJHHM, eds) pp 89–142. Elsevier AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Gething MJ, Henneberry J, Sambrook J (1988) Fusion activity of the hemagglutinin of influenza virus. In Current Topics in Membranes and Transport (Düzgünes N, Bronner F, eds) Vol 32, pp 337–364. Academic Press San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Hols H, Sixma JJ, Leunissen-Bijvelt J, Verkleij AJ (1985) Freeze-fracture studies on human blood platelets activated by thrombin using rapid freezing. Trombosis and Haemostasis 54: 574Google Scholar
- Lindblom G, Rilfors L (1989) Cubic phases and isotropic structures formed by membrane lipids-possible biological relevance. Biochim Biophys Acta 988: 221–256Google Scholar
- Siegel DP (1987) Membrane-membrane interactions via intermediates in lamellar-to-inverted hexagonal phase transitions. In Cell Fusion (Sowers AE, ed) pp 181–208. Plenum Press New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Skehel JJ, Bayley PM, Brown EB, Martin SR, Waterfield MD, White JM, Wilson IA, Wiley DC (1982) Changes in the conformation of influenza virus hemaglutinin at the pH optimum of virus-mediated membrane fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 7852–7856Google Scholar
- Steinbrecht RA, Müller M (1987) Freeze-substitution and freeze-drying. In Cryotechniques in Biological Electron Microscopy (Steinbrecht RA, Zierold K, eds) pp 149–172. Springer BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Verkleij AJ, Humbel B, Studer D, Miiller M (1985) ‘Lipidic particle’ systems as visualized by thin-section electron microscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta 812: 591–594Google Scholar
- Wharton SA (1987) The role of influenza virus haemagglutinin in membrane fusion. Microbiol Sc 4: 119–124Google Scholar