Replication of Plant RNA Viruses in Vivo in Relation to Virus-Host Interactions

  • Radhia Gargouri
  • Anne-Lise Haenni
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 41)


Various approaches can be used to examine the replication of plant RNA viruses within the host. The modifications incurred by the different cell compartments due to virus infection can indicate the parts of the cell likely to be involved in replication. The sites at which RNA replication occurs can also be ascertained by investigating where virus-specific, newly synthesized or double-stranded RNA species are located, or where the viral nonstructural proteins can be detected. Characterization and analysis of purified double-stranded RNAs has helped to elucidate the mechanism for the synthesis of the coat protein subgenomic RNA. Enzyme complexes (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or replicase) responsible for RNA replication have been isolated. Although difficult to work with, they provide valuable information regarding the virus-coded nonstructural proteins that participate in RNA replication. The characterization of host-encoded factor(s) possibly involved in this process remains a major problem.


Mosaic Virus Cucumber Mosaic Virus Nonstructural Protein Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Brome Mosaic Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahlquist P, Bujarski JJ, Kaesberg P, Hall TC (1984) Localization of the replicase recognition site within brome mosaic virus RNA by hybrid-arrested RNA synthesis. Plant Mol Biol 3:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bar-Joseph M, Rosner A, Moscovitz M, Hull R (1983) A simple procedure for the extraction of double-stranded RNA from virus-infected plants. J Virol Methods 6:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Candresse T, Mouchès C, Bové JM (1986) Characterization of the virus encoded subunit of turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA replicase. Virology 152:322–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Candresse T, Batisti M, Renaudin J, Mouchès C, Bové JM (1987) Immunodetection of turnip yellow mosaic virus non-structural proteins in infected Chinese cabbage leaves and protoplasts. Ann Inst Pasteur/Virol 138:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Collmer CW, Kaper JM (1985) Double-stranded RNAs of cucumber mosaic virus and its satellite contain an unpaired terminal guanosine: implications for replication. Virology 145:249–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Zoeten GA, Assink AM, Van Kammen A (1974) Association of cowpea mosaic virus-induced double-stranded RNA with a cytopathological structure in infected cells. Virology 59:341–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Zoeten GA, Powell CA, Gaard G, German TL (1976) In situ localization of pea enation mosaic virus double-stranded ribonucleic acid. Virology 70:459–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dodds JA, Jarupat T, Lee JG, Roistacher CN (1988) Effects of strain, host, time of harvest, and virus concentration on double-stranded RNA analysis of citrus tristeza virus. Phytopathology 77:442–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dorssers L, Van der Krol S, Van der Meer J, Van Kammen A, Zabel P (1984) Purification of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replication complex: identification of a virus-encoded 110,000-dalton polypeptide responsible for RNA chain elongation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:1951–1955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evans RK, Haley BE, Roth DA (1985) Photoaffinity labeling of a viral induced protein from tobacco. Characterization of nucleoside-binding properties. J Biol Chem 260:7800–7804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fraenkel-Conrat H (1983) RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:422–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. French R, Janda M, Ahlquist P (1986) Bacterial gene inserted in an engineered RNA virus: efficient expression in monocotyledonous plant cells. Science 231:1294–1297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Francki RIB (1987) Responses of plant cells to virus infection with special reference to the sites of RNA replication. In: Brinton MA and Rueckert RR (eds) Positive strand RNA viruses. Alan R liss Inc., New York, p 423Google Scholar
  14. Gadh IPS, Hari V (1986) Association of tobacco etch virus related RNA with chloroplasts in extracts of infected plants. Virology 150:304–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gargouri R, Joshi RL, Bol JF, Astier-Manifacier S, Haenni AL (1989) Mechanism of synthesis of turnip yellow mosaic virus coat protein subgenomic RNA in vivo. Virology, in pressGoogle Scholar
  16. Gamier M, Mamoun R, Bové JM (1980) TYMV RNA replication in vivo: replicative intermediate is mainly single stranded. Virology 104:357–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gamier M, Candresse T, Bové JM (1986) Immunocytochemical localization of TYMV-coded structural and nonstructural proteins by the protein A-gold technique. Virology 151:100–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldbach R, Wellink J (1988) Evolution of plus-strand RNA viruses. Intervirology 29:260–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gorbalenya AE, Blinov VM, Donchenko AP, Koonin EV (1989) An NTP-binding motif is the most conserved sequence in a highly diverged monophyletic group of proteins involved in positive strand RNA viral replication. J Mol Evol 28:256–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haenni AL, Joshi S, Chapeville F (1982) tRNA-like structures in the genomes of RNA viruses. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 27:85–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hardy SF, German TL, Loesch-Fries LS, Hall TC (1979) Highly active template-specific RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from barley leaves infected with brome mosaic virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:4956–4960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harrison BD, Stefanac Z, Roberts IM (1970) Role of mitochrondria in the formation of X-bodies in cells of Nicotiana clevelandii infected by tobacco rattle viruses. J Gen Virol 6:127–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haseloff J, Goelet P, Zimmern D, Ahlquist P, Dasgupta R, Kaesberg P (1984) Striking similarities in amino acid sequence among nonstructural proteins encoded by RNA viruses that have dissimilar genomic organization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:4358–4362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hatta T, Francki RIB (1978) Enzyme cytochemical identification of single-stranded and double-stranded RNAs in virus-infected plant and insect cells. Virology 88:105–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hatta T, Francki RIB (1981) Cytopathic structures associated with tonoplasts of plant cells infected with cucumber mosaic and tomato aspermy viruses. J Gen Virol 53:343–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hills GJ, Plaskitt KA, Young ND, Dunigan DD, Watts JW, Wilson TMA, Zaitlin M (1987) Immunogold localization of the intracellular sites of structural and nonstructural tobacco mosaic virus proteins. Virology 161:488–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hirth L, Givord L (1988) Tymoviruses. In: Koenig R (ed) The plant viruses. Plenum, New York, p 163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Horikoshi M, Mise K, Furusawa I, Shishiyama J (1988) Immunological analysis of brome mosaic virus replicase. J Gen Virol 69:3081–3087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Howing CJ, Jaspars EMJ (1986) Coat protein blocks the in vitro transcription of the virion RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus. FEBS Lett 209:284–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ishikawa M, Meshi T, Motoyoshi F, Takamatsu N, Okada Y (1988) In vitro mutagenesis of the putative replicase genes of tobacco mosaic virus. Nucleic Acids Res 14:8291–8305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jaspars EMJ, Gill DS, Symons RH (1985) Viral RNA synthesis by a particulate fraction from cucumber seedlings infected with cucumber mosaic virus. Virology 144:410–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jordan RL, Dodds JA (1985) Double-stranded RNA in detection of diseases of known and unproven viral etiology. Acta Hortic 164:101–108Google Scholar
  33. Joshi RL, Ravel, JM, Haenni AL (1986) Interaction of turnip yellow mosaic virus Val-RNA with eukaryotic elongation factor EF-la. Search for a function. EMBO J 5:1143–1148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kääriäinen L, Takkinen K, Keränen S, Söderlund H (1987) Replication of the genome of alphaviruses. J Cell Sci Suppl 7:231–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kamer G, Argos P (1984) Primary structure comparison of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from plant, animal and bacterial viruses. Nucleic Acids Res 12:7269–7282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kiberstis PA, Loesch-Fries LS, Hall TC (1981) Viral protein synthesis in barley protoplasts inoculated with native and fractionated brome mosaic virus RNA. Virology 112:804–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lafleche D, Bové JM (1986) Sites d’incorporation de l’uridine tritiée dans les cellules du parenchyme foliaire de Brassica chinensis ,saines ou infectées par le virus de la mosaïque jaune du navet. C R Acad Sci 266:1839–1841Google Scholar
  38. Laflèche D, Bové C, Dupont G, Mouchès C, Astier T, Garnier M, Bové JM (1972) Site of viral RNA replication in the cells of higher plants: TYMV-RNA synthesis on the chloroplast outer membrane system. Proc Fed Eur Biochem Soc 27:43–71Google Scholar
  39. Loesch-Fries LS, Hall TC (1980) Synthesis, accumulation and encapsidation of individual brome mosaic virus RNA components in barley protoplasts. J Gen Virol 47:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Martelli GP, Russo M (1984) Use of thin sectioning for visualization and identification of plant viruses. Methods Virol 8:143–224Google Scholar
  41. Miller WA, Hall TC (1983) Use of micrococcal nuclease in the purification of highly template dependent RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from brome mosaic virus-infected barley. Virology 125:236–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miller WA, Hall TC (1984) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase isolated from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-infected cowpeas is specific for bromoviral RNA. Virology 132:53–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miller WA, Bujarski JJ, Dreher TW, Hall TC (1986) Minus-strand initiation by brome mosaic virus replicase within the 3’ tRNA-like structure of native and modified RNA templates. J Mol Biol 187:537–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morch MD, Boyer JC, Haenni AL (1988) Overlapping open reading frames revealed by complete nucleotide sequencing of turnip yellow mosaic virus genomic RNA. Nucleic Acids Res 16:6157–6173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mouchès C, Candresse T, Bové JM (1984) Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA-replicase contains host and virus encoded subunits. Virology 134:78–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nassuth A, Bol JF (1983) Altered balance of the synthesis of plus-and minus-strand RNAs induced by RNAs 1 and 2 of alfalfa mosaic virus in the absence of RNA 3. Virology 124:75–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nilsson-Tillgren T, Kielland-Brandt MC, Bekke B (1974) On the biosynthesis of tobacco mosaic virus VI. On the subcellular localization of double-stranded viral RNA. Mol Gen Genet 128:157–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nitta N, Takanami Y, Kuwata S, Kubo S (1988) Inoculation with RNAs 1 and 2 of cucumber mosaic virus induces viral RNA replicase activity in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. J Gen Virol 69:2695–2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Palukaitis P, Garcia-Arenal F, Sulzinski MA, Zaitlin M (1983) Replication of tobacco mosaic virus VII. Further characterization of single-and double-stranded virus-related RNAs from TMV-infected plants. Virology 131:533–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Powell CA, De Zoeten GA (1977) Replication of pea enation mosaic virus RNA in isolated pea nuclei. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:2922–2929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Quadt R, Verbeek HJM, Jaspars EMJ (1988) Involvement of a nonstructural protein in the RNA synthesis of brome mosaic virus. Virology 165:256–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rezelman G, Goldbach R, Van Kammen A (1980) Expression of bottom component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus in cowpea protoplasts. J Virol 36:366–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Rezelman G, Franssen HJ, Goldbach RW, le TS, Van Kammen A (1982) Limits to the independence of bottom component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus. J Gen Virol 60:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rohozinski J, Francki RIB, Chu PWG (1986) The in vitro synthesis of velvet tobacco mottle virus-specific double-stranded RNA by a soluble fraction in extracts from infected Nicotiana clevelandii leaves. Virology 155:27–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Russo M, Di Franco A, Martelli GP (1983) The fine structure of Cymbidium ringspot virus infections in host tissues III. Role of peroxisomes in the genesis of multivesicular bodies. J Ultrastruct Res 82:52–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Saito T, Hosokawa D, Meshi T, Okada Y (1987) Immunological localization of the 130K and 180K proteins (putative replicase components) of tobacco mosaic virus. Virology 160:477–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sugimura Y, Ushiyama R (1975) Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infection and its bearing on cytological alterations in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. J Gen Virol 29:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ushiyama R, Matthews REF (1970) The significance of chloroplast abnormalities associated with infection by turnip yellow mosaic virus. Virology 42:293–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Valverde RA, Dodds JA, Heick JA (1986) Double-stranded ribonucleic acid from plants infected with viruses having elongated particles and undivided genomes. Phytopathology 76:459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Van der Meer J, Dorssers L, Van Kammen A, Zabel P (1984) The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of cowpea is not involved in cowpea mosaic virus RNA replication: immunological evidence. Virology 132:413–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Van Kammen A (1985) The replication of plant virus RNA. Microbiol Sci 2:170–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Watanabe Y, Okada Y (1986) In vitro RNA synthesis by a subcellular fraction of TMV-inoculated tobacco protoplasts. Virology 149:64–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Watts JW, Dawson JRO (1980) Double infection of tobacco protoplasts with brome mosaic virus and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. Virology 105:501–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wellink J, Van Lent J, Goldbach R (1988) Detection of viral proteins in cytopathic structures in cowpea protoplasts infected with cowpea mosaic virus. J Gen Virol 69:751–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zaitlin M, Hull R (1987) Plant virus-host interactions. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 38:291–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zelcer A, Weaber KF, Balazs E, Zaitlin M (1981) The detection and characterization of viral-related double-stranded RNAs in tobacco mosaic virus-infected plants. Virology 113:417–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radhia Gargouri
    • 1
  • Anne-Lise Haenni
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut Jacques MonodParis Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations