XXIV International Conference on High Energy Physics pp 1284-1289 | Cite as
Renormalization of Extended Electroweak Models from the Heterotic String and Z′ Production
String theories use to predict a much higher than four rank gauge group. In particular four-dimensional strings in the fermionic formulation [l] currently generate rank-22 gauge groups while orbifold compactifications  of the E 8 × E 8 heterotic string and some four-dimensional string constructions in the bosonic formulation  can encompass gauge groups of rank as low as 8. Finally, Calabi-Yau compactifications of the E 8 × E 8 string with spin connection embedded into the gauge group , and possibly blown-up (2,2) orbifolds , lead to E 6, or any rank-6 or 5 subgroup thereof, as the gauge group at the compactification scale. Therefore some extra U(1) at low energy is not unexpected from string theories. On the other hand, the signature of an extra Z′  in present and future hadron colliders is probably the cleanest one as far as new physics is concerned.
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