• Gerhard Bernaschek
  • Josef Deutinger
  • Alfred Kratochwil


Ultrasonography has earned an established place in the evaluation and management of female infertility. The history of this application began when Kratochwil et al. (1972, 1973) first evaluated the ovaries with ultrasound. Later, improvements in image resolution enabled the sonographic detection of cyclic changes in the female genital organs. Building on the work of Kratochwil, Hackelöer and Hansmann were able in 1976 to demonstrate follicular growth and involution with ultrasound and to show a strong correlation between follicular size and endocrine parameters (Hackelöer et al. 1979).


Embryo Transfer Corpus Luteum Oocyte Retrieval Follicular Growth Dominant Follicle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ashkenazi J, Feldberg D, Shelef M, Dicker D, Goldman JA (1987) Empty follicle syndrome: an entity in the etiology of infertility of unknown origin, or a phenomenon associated with purified follicle-stimulating hormone therapy? Fertil Steril 48: 152–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bald R (1983) Studien über die sonographische Endometri-umdarstellung. Dissertation, University of MarburgGoogle Scholar
  3. Ben-Rafael Z, Kopf GS, Blasco L, Flickinger GL, Tureck RW, Strauss JF, Matroianni L jr (1986) Follicular maturation parameters associated with the failure of oocyte retrieval, fertilization, and cleavage in vitro. Fertil Steril 45: 51–57Google Scholar
  4. Bernardus RE, van Dop PA, van Kessel H, Schoemaker J (1983) New evidence for the existence of the luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome as a cause of infertility: a case report. Fertil Steril 39: 376–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernaschek G (1987a) Endosonography. In: Sabbagha RE (ed) Diagnostic Ultrasound, 2nd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 572–582Google Scholar
  6. Bernaschek G (1987 b) Vorteile der endosonographischen Diagnostik in Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 47: 471–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernaschek G, Deutinger J (1988) Endosonographie in Geburtshilfe und Gynäkologie. In: Gockel HP (ed) Jahrbuch der Radiologie 1988. Regensberg & Biermann pp 105–119Google Scholar
  8. Bernaschek G, Szalay S, Müller-Tyl E, Janisch H (1984) Ultraschallgeleitete Follikelpunktion zur Eizellgewinnung. In: Lutz H, Reichel L (eds) Ultraschalldiagnostik, vol 83. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 68Google Scholar
  9. Blankstein J, Shalev J, Saadon T, Kukia EE, Rabinovici J, Pariente C, Lunenfeld B, Serr DM, Mashiach S (1987) Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: prediction by number and size of preovulatory ovarian follicles. Fertil Steril 47: 597–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bryce RL, Shuter B, Sinosich MJ, Stiel JN, Picker RH, Saunders DM (1982) The value of ultrasound, gonadotropin, and estradiol measurements for precise ovulation prediction. Fertil Steril 47: 42–45Google Scholar
  11. Buttery B, Trounson A, Master R, Wood C (1983) Evaluation of diagnostic ultrasound as a parameter of follicular development in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 39: 458–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Buvat J, Marcolin G, Herbaut J-C, Dehaene J-L, Verbecq P, Fourlinnie J-C (1988) A randomized trial of human chorionic gonadotropin support following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 49: 458–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen J, Debache C, Pez JP, Junca AM, Cohen-Bacrie P (1986) Vaginal sonographically controlled ovarian puncture for oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 3: 309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Confino E, Friberg J, Giglia RV, Gleicher N (1985) Sonographic imaging of intrauterine adhesions. Obstet Gynecol 66:596–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooke ID (1988) The corpus luteum. Hum Reprod 3: 153–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Crosignani PG (1988) The detective luteal phase. Hum Reprod 3: 157–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dallenbach-Hellweg G (1988) The endometrium in natural and artificial luteal phases. Hum Reprod 3:165–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Daly DC, Soto-Albors C, Walters C, Ying Y, Riddick DH (1985) Ultrasonographic assessment of luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome in unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril 43: 62–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis JA, Gosink BB (1986) Fluid in the female pelvis. Cyclic patterns. J Ultrasound Med 5: 75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis J, Waskey J (1987) Ultrasonic evaluation of the menstrual cycle: a new approach to diagnosing luteal phase defect (LPD) and luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome. Proceedings of 32nd Annual Convention of American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Oct 6–9, 1987, New Orleans, p 36Google Scholar
  21. Dherney A, Tarlatzis BC, Laufer N (1985) Follicular development: lessons learned from human in vitro fertilization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 153: 911–923Google Scholar
  22. De Crespigny LC, O’Herlihy C, Hoult IJ, Robinson HP (1981a) Ultrasound in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 35: 25–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. De Crespigny LC, O’Herlihy C, Robinson HP (1981b) Ultrasonic observation of the mechanism of human ovulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 139: 636–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Deichert U, Hackelöer BJ, Daume E (1986) The sonographic endocrinologic evaluation of the endometrium in the luteal phase. Hum Reprod 1: 219–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dellenbach P, Nisand I, Moreau L, Feger B, Plumere C, Gerlinger P, Brun B, Rumpier Y (1984) Vaginal sonographically controlled ovarian follicle puncture for egg retrieval. Lancet I: 1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dellenbach P, Nisand I, Moreau L, Feger B, Plumere C, Gerlinger P (1985) Vaginal sonographically controlled follicle puncture for oocyte retrieval. Fertil Steril 44: 656–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Deutinger J, Müller-Tyl E, Bernaschek G (1984) Predictive value of early biochemical and ultrasound parameters for pregnancy detection after in vitro fertilization. Arch Androl 12:168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deutinger J, Reinthaller A, Müller-Tyl E, Riss P, Fischl F, Janisch H (1985) Vier Jahre erfolgreiche In vitro Fertilisierung an der 2. Universitätsfrauenklinik Wien. Österr Ärzteztg 40: 52–58Google Scholar
  29. Deutinger J, Neumark J, Reinthaller A, Riss P, Müller-Tyl E, Fischl F, Bieglmayer Ch, Janisch H, (1986 a) Early pregnancy-specific parameters in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization: prediction of the course of pregnancy. Fertil Steril 46: 77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Deutinger J, Reinthaller A, Riss P, Bernaschek G, Csaicsich P, Müller-Tyl E, Fischl F, Janisch H (1986 b) Vaginosonography: an improvement for daily follicular measurement. Hum Reprod 1, Suppl 2: 7–8Google Scholar
  31. Deutinger J, Reinthaller A, Bernaschek G, Riss P, Fischl F, Müller-Tyl E (1986 c) Vaginal sonography and follicle puncture with a new vaginal scanner. 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Fertility Society, Sept27-Oct2, 1986, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  32. Deutinger J, Reinthaller A, Riss P, Bernaschek G, Csaicsich P, Fischl F, Müller-Tyl E (1987 a) Comparison of the results of vaginal and abdominal follicle scans. Arch Gynecol Obstet 241: 171–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Deutinger J, Reinthaller A, Csaicsich P, Riss P, Fischl F, Bernaschek G, Müller-Tyl E (1987 b) Follicular aspiration for in vitro fertilization: sonographically guided vaginal versus laparoscopic approach. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 26: 127–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Deutinger J, Rudelstorfer R, Bernaschek G (1987 c) Vaginale gepulste Dopplerultraschalluntersuchungen an den Ovarialgefäßen. Ultraschall Klin Prax Suppl 1: 45–46Google Scholar
  35. Deutinger J, Riss P, Reinthaller A, Bernaschek G, Csaicsich P, Fischl F, Müller-Tyl E, Janisch H (1987 d) Vergleich von vaginosonografischer, transabdomineller sonografischer und laparoskopischer Follikelpunktion zur Gewinnung von Eizellen im Rahmen eines In-vitro-Fertilisierungsprogrammes. Wien Med Wochenschr 5/6: 108–112Google Scholar
  36. Deutinger J, Bernaschek G, Csaicsich P, Reinthaller A (1987 e) Vaginal sonography and follicle puncture with a new vaginal scanner. 32nd annual convention of the American Institute of ultrasound in medicine, Oct 6–9, 1987, New OrleansGoogle Scholar
  37. Deutinger J, Rudelstorfer R, Bernaschek G (1989) Vaginale gepulste Dopplermessungen von Strömungsgeschwindigkeiten in Beckengefäßen nach Zyklusstimulation. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 49: 33–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dlugi AM, Laufer N, Botero-Ruiz W, Dherney AH, Polan ML, Haseltine FP, Mezer HC, Behrmann HR (1985) Altered follicular development in clomiphene citrate versus human menopausal gonadotropin-stimulated cycles for in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 43: 40–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Doody MC, Gibbons WE, Zamah NM (1987) Linear regression analysis of ultrasound follicular growth series: statistical relationship of growth rate and calculated date of growth onset to total growth period. Fertil Steril 47: 436–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Donnez J, Thomas K (1982) Incidence of the luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome in fertile women and in women with endometriosis. Europ J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 14:187–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dornbluth NC, Potter JL, Shepard MK, Balmacedo JP, SilerKhodr TM (1983) Assessment of follicular development by ultrasonography and total serum estrogen in human menopausal gonadotropin-stimulated cycles. J Ultrasound Med 2: 407–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Drugan A, Blumenfeld Z, Erlik Y, Timor-Tritseh IE, Brandes MJ (1988) The use of vaginal sonography in infertility. In: Timor-Tritsch IE, Rottem S (eds) Vaginal sonography. Heinemann Medical, London, pp 143–159Google Scholar
  43. Dose TJ, Hill LW, Hennigan HW Jr, Nichols DH, Mezaraups GG, Porter L, Marley L, Butschek CM, Karnaze GC, Walser E, Reyes K, Cunyus JA (1985) Sonography of arcuate uterine blood vessels. J Ultrasound Med 4: 229–233Google Scholar
  44. Eissa MK, Hudson K, Docker MF, Sawers RS, Newton JR (1985) Ultrasound follicle diameter measurement: an assessment of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Fertil Steril 44: 751–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Eissa MK, Obhrai MS, Docker MF, Lynch SS, Sawers RS, Newton JR (1986) Follicular growth and endocrine profiles in spontaneous and induced conception cycles. Fertil Steril 45: 191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Eissa MK, Sawers RS, Docker MF, Lynch SS, Newton JR (1987) Characteristics and incidence of dysfunctional ovulation patterns detected by ultrasound. Fertil Steril 47: 603–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. El Tabbakh GH, Lofty I, Azab I, Rahman HA, Southren AL, Aleem FA (1986) Correlation of the ultrasonic appearance of the ovaries in polycystic ovarian disease and the clinical, hormonal, and laparoscopic findings. Am J Obstet Gynecol 154:892–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Enk L, Wikland M (1985) Preliminary report on a vaginal ultrasound transducer for oocyte collection. 4th World Conference on In-Vitro-Fertilization, Melbourne, 1985. Brüel and Kjaer, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  49. Fateh M, Ben-Rafael Z, Blasco L, Tureck RW, Meloni F, Mastroianni L (1986) Comparison of ultrasonographic transurethral and laparoscopic guided oocytes retrieval. Fertil Steril 46: 653–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Feichtinger W, Kemeter P (1984) Laparoscopic or ultrasonically guided follicle aspiration for in vitro fertilization? J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 1: 244–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Feichtinger W, Kemeter P (1986 a) Transvaginal sector scan sonography for needle guided vaginal follicle aspiration and other applications in gynecological routine and research. Fertil Steril 45: 722–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Feichtinger W, Kemeter P (1986b) Erste Ergebnisse der vaginalen Follikelpunktion mit Hilfe eines vaginalen Ultraschallsektorscanners mit Punktionsnadelführung. In: Popp LW (ed) Gynäkologische Endosonographie. Aktualisierter Kongreßband der 1. Arbeitstagung gynäkologische Endosonographie 1985 in Hamburg. Klemke, Quickborn, pp 147–151Google Scholar
  53. Feichtinger W, Kemeter P (1987) Aspirationstechniken unter Ultraschallkontrolle. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Arch Gynecol Obstet 242: 141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Feichtinger W, Szalay S, Beck A, Kemeter P, Janisch H (1981) Die Gewinnung reifer menschlicher Eizellen mittels Laparoskopie zum Zwecke der In-vitro-Fertilisierung. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 41: 400–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fleischer AC (1988) Vaginal sonography of the endometrium during ovulation induction. 1st World Congress on vaginosonography in gynecology. June 9–12, 1988, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  56. Fleischer AC, Daniell JF, Rodier J, Lindsay AM, James AE (1981) Sonographic monitoring of ovarian follicular development. J Clin Ultrasound 9: 275–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fleischer AC, Pitta way DE, Beard LA, Thieme GA, Bundy AL, James AE, Wentz AC (1984) Sonographic depiction of endometrial changes occurring with ovulation induction. J Ultrasound Med 3: 341–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Fleischer AC, Herbert CM, Sacks GA, Wentz AC, Entman SS, James AE jr (1986) Sonography of the endometrium during conception and nonception cycles of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 46: 442–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Geisthövel F, Skubsch U, Zabel G, Schillinger H, Breckwoldt M (1983) Ultrasonographic and hormonal studies in physiologic and insufficient menstrual cycles. Fertil Steril 39: 277–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gleicher N, Friberg J, Fullan N, Giglia RV, Mayden K, Kesky T, Siegel I (1983) Egg retrieval for in vitro fertilization by sonographically controlled vaginal culdocentesis. Lancet II:508–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Glissant A, Mouzon J de, Frydman R (1985) Ultrasound study of the endometrium during in vitro fertilisation cycles. Fertil Steril 44: 786–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Giorlandino C, Gleicher N, Nanni C, Vizzone A, Gentili P, Taramanni C (1987) The sonographic picture of endometrium in spontaneous and induced cycles. Fertil Steril 47: 508–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gonen Y, Caspers RF, Jacobson W, Blankier J (1989) Endometrial thickness and growth during ovarian stimulation: a possible predictor of implantation in in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 52: 446–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Graf MJ, Reyniak JV, Battle-Mutter P, Laufer N (1988) Histologic evaluation of the luteal phase in women following aspiration for oocyte retrieval. Fertil Steril 49: 616–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Granberg S, Wikland M (1987) Comparison between vaginal and transabdominal transducers for measuring ovarian volume. J Ultrasound Med 6: 649–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Habermssn PG, Hünlich T, Siebzehnrübl E, Trotnow S (1986) Die ultraschallkontrollierte Follikelpunktion in der “Zwei-Instrumente-Technik”. Ultraschall 7:179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hackelöer BJ (1984) The role of ultrasound in female infertility management. J Ultrasound Med 10: 35–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hackelöer BJ (1986) What happened in follicular ultrasound (letter). Hum Reprod 1: 49Google Scholar
  69. Hackelöer BJ, Hansmann M (1976) Ultraschalldiagnostik in der Frühschwangerschaft. Gynäkologe 9:108–122Google Scholar
  70. Hackelöer BJ, Nitschke-Dabeistein S (1980) Ovarian imaging by ultrasound: an attempt to define a reference plane. J Clin Ultrasound 8: 497–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hackelöer BJ, Robinson HP (1978) Ultraschalldarstellung des wachsenden Follikels und Corpus luteum im normalen physiologischen Zyklus. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 38: 163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hackelöer BJ, Nitschke S, Daume E, Sturm G, Buchholz R (1977) Ultraschalldarstellung von Ovarveränderungen bei Gonadotropinstimulierung. Geburtshilfe Frauenheikd 37: 185–190Google Scholar
  73. Hackelöer BJ, Fleming R, Robinson HP, Adam AH, Coutts JRT (1979) Correlation of ultrasonic and endocrinologic assessment of human follicular development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135:122–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hackelöer BJ, Dörfler R, Nitschke S, Buchholz R (1980) Ultraschalldarstellung des Follikelwachstums und Basaltemperaturmessung Vergleich zweier Methoden zur Ovulationsbestimmung. Ultraschall 1: 133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hammarberg K, Enk L, Nilsson L, Wikland M (1987) Oocyte retrieval under the guidance of a vaginal transducer: evaluation of patient acceptance. Hum Reprod 2: 487–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Haning RV, Austin CW, Carlson IH, Kuzma DL, Shapiro SS, Zweibel WJ (1983) Plasma estradiol is superior to ultrasound and urinary estriol glucoronide as a predictor of ovarian hyperstimulation during induction of ovulation with menotropins. Fertil Steril 40: 31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Haning RV, Strawn EY, Nolten WE (1985) Pathophysiology of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 66: 220–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hansmann M, Hackelöer BJ, Staudach A (1985) Ultraschalldiagnostik in Geburtshilfe und Gynäkologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  79. Hill GA, Herbert CM, Fleischer AC, Webster BW, Maxson WS, Wentz AC (1986) Enlargement of hydrosalpinges during ovarian stimulation protocols for in vitro fertilization and embryo replacement. Fertil Steril 45: 883–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hoffmann DI (1987) Evaluation of follicles. In: Sabbagha RE (ed) Diagnostic ultrasound. 2nd edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 454–460Google Scholar
  81. Hoult IJ, Crespigny LC de, O’Herlihy C, Speirs AL, Lopata A, Kellow G, Johnston I, Robinson HP (1981) Ultrasound control of Clomiphene/human chorionic gonadotropin stimulated cycles for oocyte recovery and in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 36: 316–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hull ME, Moghissi KS, Magyar DM, Hayes MF, Zador I, Olson JM (1986) Correlation of serum estradiol levels and ultrasound monitoring to assess follicular maturation. Fertil Steril 46: 42–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Imoedemhe DAG, Shaw RW, Kirkland A, Chan R (1987) Ultrasound measurement of endometrial thickness on different ovarian stimulation regimens during in-vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod 2: 545–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Janssen-Caspers HAB, Kruitwagen RFPM, Wladimiroff JW, Jong FH de, Drogendijk AC (1986 a) Diagnosis of luteinized unruptured follicle by ultrasound and steroid hormone assays in peritoneal fluid: a comparative study. Fertil Steril 46: 823–827Google Scholar
  85. Janssen-Caspers HAB, Gent I van, Wladimiroff JW, Alberda AT, Zeilmaker GH (1986 b) Ultrasonically guided percutaneous and laparoscopic oocyte aspiration: a comparative study. Europ J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 21: 219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kemeter P, Feichtinger W (1986) Vaginal oocyte retrieval using a vaginal sector scan probe with an automated puncture device. Hum Reprod 1: 21–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Konickx PR (1983) The luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome (letter). Fertil Steril 39: 249–250Google Scholar
  88. Kratochwil A (1969) Ein neues vaginales Ultraschall-Schnittbildverfahren. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 29: 379–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kratochwil A, Urban G, Friedrich F (1972) Ultrasonic tomography of the ovaries. Ann Chir Gynaecol 61: 211–214Google Scholar
  90. Kratochwil A, Jentsch K, Brezina KF (1973) Ultraschallanatomie des weiblichen Beckens und ihre klinische Bedeutung. Arch Gynecol 214: 273–275Google Scholar
  91. Kun L, Bösze P (1973) Die Bedeutung der Ultraschalluntersuchung für die Diagnosestellung des polycystischen Ovars. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 33: 452–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Laatikainen T, Tulenheimo A, Andersson B, Kärkkäinen J (1983) Obesity, serum steroid levels, and pulsatile gonadotropin secretion in polycystic ovarian disease. Europ J Obstet Reprod Biol 15: 45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Leader A, Wiseman D, Taylor PJ (1985) The prediction of ovulation: a comparison of the basal body temperature graph, cervical mucus score, and real-time pelvic ultrasonography. Fertil Steril 43: 385–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Leerentveld RA, van Gent I, van der Stoep M, Alberda BT, Wladimiroff JW (1984) Comparison of Graafian follicle dimensions as determined by static and real-time sector scanning. Fertil Steril 42: 929–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Leeton J, Kerin J (1984) Embryo transfer. In: Wood C, Trounson A (ed) Clinical in vitro fertilization. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 117Google Scholar
  96. Lejeune B, Camus M, Deschacht J, Leroy F (1986) Differences in the luteal phases after failed od successful in vitro fertilization and embryo replacement. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 3: 358–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lenz S (1984) Ultrasonic-guided follicle puncture under local anesthesia. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 1: 239–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lenz S, Bang J (1986) Transvesical/transuterine collection of oocytes by ultrasound. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 3: 259–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lenz S, Lauritsen JG (1982) Ultrasonically guided percutaneous aspiration of human follicles under local anesthesia: a new method of collecting oocytes for in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 38: 673–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lenz S, Lauritsen JG, Kjellow M (1981) Collection of human ooctes for in vitro fertilization by ultrasonically guided follicular puncture. Lancet I: 1163–1164Google Scholar
  101. Lenz S, Leeton J, Renou P (1987) Vaginal recovery of oocytes for in vitro fertilization using vaginal ultrasound. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 4: 51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lewin A, Maragalioth EJ, Rabinowitz R, Schenker JG (1985) Comparative study of ultrasonically guided percutaneous aspiration with local anesthesia and laparoscopic aspiration of follicles in an in vitro fertilization program. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151: 621–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lewin A, Laufer N, Rabinowitz R, Margalioth EJ, Bar I, Schenker JG (1986 a) Ultrasonically guided oocyte collection under local anesthesia: the first choice method for in vitro fertilization a comparative study with laparoscopy. Fertil Steril 46: 257–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lewin A, Laufer N, Rabinowitz R, Schenker JG (1986b) Ultrasonically guided oocyte recovery for in vitro fertilization: an improved method. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 3:370–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lindemann HJ (1988) Hysteroscopy in relation to vaginosonography. 1st World Congress on vaginosonography in gynecology. June 9–12, 1988, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  106. Liukkonen S, Koskimies AI, Tenhunen A, Ylöstalo P (1984) Diagnosis of luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome by ultrasound. Fertil Steril 41: 26–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lopata A, Johnston IWH, Leeton JF, Muchnicki D, Talbot JM, Wood C (1974) Collection of human oocytes at laparoscopy and laparotomy. Fertil Steril 25:1030–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mantzavinos T, Garcia JE, Jones HW (1983) Ultrasound measurement of ovarian follicles stimulated by human gonadotropins for oocyte recovery and in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 40: 461–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mao KR, Haines CJ, Tam PPL (1986) Successful oocyte retrieval and in vitro fertilization following ultrasound-directed aspiration of endometriomas. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 3: 333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mrdle C, Seibel M, Hann LE, Weinstein F, Taymor M The diagnosis of ovarian hyperstimulation (OHS): the impact of ultrasound. Fertil Steril 39: 464–467Google Scholar
  111. Marinho AO, Sallam HN, Goessens LKV, Collins WP, Rodeck CH, Campbell S (1982) Real time pelvic ultrasonography during the periovulatory period of patients attending an artificial insemination clinic. Fertil Steril 37: 633–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Martin J (1986) Follikulometrie mit Hilfe der Vaginosonographie. In: Popp LW (ed) Gynäkologische Endosonographie. Aktualisierter Kongreßband der 1. Arbeitstagung gynäkologische Endosonographie 1985 in Hamburg. Klemke, Quickborn, pp 143–146Google Scholar
  113. Meldrum DR, Chetkowski RJ, Steingold KA, Rändle D Vaginal ultrasound scanning of ovarian follicles. Fertil Steril 42: 803–805Google Scholar
  114. Mettler L (1988) The role of pelviscopy, hysteroscopy and vaginosonography in IVF/ET and GIFT procedures. 1st World Congress on vaginosonography in gynecology. June 9–12, 1988, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  115. Nicolini U, Ferrazzi E, Bellotti M, Travaglini P, Elli R, Scaperrotta RG (1985) The contribution of sonographic evaluation of ovarian size in patients with polycystic ovarian disease. J Ultrasound Med 4: 347–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Nitschke-Dabeistein S, Hackelöer BJ, Sturm G (1981) Ovulation and corpus luteum formation observed by ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 7: 33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Oelsner G, Pan SB, Barnea ER, Boyers SP, Tarlatzis BC, DeCherney AH (1986) The value of the cervical score in monitoring ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization: a prospective double-blind study. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 3: 366–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. O’Herlihy C, De Crespigny LC, Lopata A, Johnston I, Hoult I, Robinson H (1980a) Preovulatory follicular size: a comparison of ultrasound and laparoscopic measurements. Fertil Steril 34: 24–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. O’Herlihy C, De Crespigny LC, Robinson HP (1980b) Monitoring ovarian follicular development with real time ultrasound. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 87: 613–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Orsini LF, Venturoli S, Lorusso R, Pluchinotta V, Paradisi R, Bovicelli L (1985) Ultrasonic findings in polycystic ovarian disease. Fertil Steril 43: 709–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Parisi L, Tramonti M, Casciano S, Zurli A, Gazzarrini O (1982) The role of ultrasound in the study of polycystic ovarian disease. J Clin Ultrasound 10:167–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Parisi L, Tramonti M, Derchi LE, Casciano S, Zurli A, Rocchi P (1984) Polycystic ovarian disease: ultrasonic evaluation and correlations with clinical and hormonal data. J Clin Ultrasound 12: 21–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Parsons J, Booker M, Goswamy J, Akkermans J, Riddle A, Sharma V, Wilson L, Withead M, Campbell S (1985) Oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization by ultrasonically guided needle aspiration via the urethra. Lancet I: 1076–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Parsons JH, Bolton VN, Wilson L, Campbell S (1987) Pregnancies following in vitro fertilization and ultrasound-directed surgical embryo transfer by perurethal and vaginal techniques. Fertil Steril 48: 691–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Paulson JD, Speck G, Albarelli JN (1984) The use of ultrasonography in patients with unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril 42: 489–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Picker RH, Smith DH, Tucker MH, Saunders DM (1983) Ultrasonic signs of imminent ovulation. J Clin Ultrasound 11: 1–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Popp LW (1986) Möglichkeiten der vaginosonographisch gezielten Punktion in einem In-vitro Fertilisierungsprogramm. In: Popp LW (ed) Gynäkologische Endosonographie. Aktualisierter Kongreßband der 1. Arbeitstagung gynäkologische Endosonographie 1985, Hamburg. Klemke, Quickborn, pp 153–162Google Scholar
  128. Popp LW, Müller-Holve W (1984) Die Indikationsstellung zur Vaginosonographie. In: Lutz H, Reichel L (eds) Ultraschalldiagnostik 83. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 74Google Scholar
  129. Popp LW, Lemester S, Hinrichs S, Heesen D, Müller-Holve W, Martin K (1985) Intravaginale Ultraschalldiagnostik (Vaginosonographie) erste Erfahrungen mit dem Panoramasektor. In: Judmaier G, Frommhold H, Kratochwil A (eds) Ultraschalldiagnostik 84. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 320Google Scholar
  130. Queenan JT, O’Brian GD, Bains LM, Simpson J, Collins WP, Campbell S (1980) Ultrasound scanning of ovaries to detect ovulation in women. Fertil Steril 34: 99–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Reinthaller A, Deutinger J, Müller-Tyl E, Riss P, Fischl F, Janisch H (1985) In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer program. 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 2: 238–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Riddle AF, Sharma V, Mason BA, Ford NT, Pampiglione JS, Parsons J, Campbell S (1987) Two years’ experience of ultrasound-directed oocyte retrieval. Fertil Steril 48: 454–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Ritchie WGM (1985) Ultrasound in the evaluation of normal and induced ovulation. Fertil Steril 43:167–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Roberts AB, Graham FM, Binkerd P (1985) Ultrasonic preovulatory follicular appearances as an indicator of the outcome of an in vitro fertilization cycle. Fertil Steril 43: 560–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Robertson RD, Picker RH, Wilson PC, Saunders DM (1979) Assessment of ovulation by ultrasound and plasma estradiol determinations. Obstet Gynecol 56: 686–691Google Scholar
  136. Rossavik IK, Gibbons WE (1986) Growth curve analyses of follicular growth in the in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 45: 834–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Schulman H, Fleischer A, Farmakides G, Bracero L, Rochelson B, Grunfeld L (1986) Development of uterine artery compliance in pregnancy as detected by Doppler ultrasound. Am J Obstet Gynecol 155:1031–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Schulman J (1985 a) Outpatient in vitro fertilization using vaginal oocyte retrieval and local anesthesia. N Engl J Med 312:1639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Schulman JD (1985b) Laparoscopy for in vitro fertilization: end of an era (letter). Fertil Steril 44: 713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Schwimer SR, Lebovic J (1984) Vainal pelvic ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 3: 381–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Schwimer SR, Lebovic J (1985) Vaginal pelvic ultrasonography: accuracy in follicle and cyst size determination. J Ultrasound Med 4: 61–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Schwimer SR, Rothman CM, Lebovic J, Oye DM (1984) The effect of ultrasound coupling gels on sperm motility in vitro. Fertil Steril 42: 946–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Seifer DB, Collins RL, Paushter DM, George CR, Quigley MM (1988) Follicular aspiration: a comparison of an ultrasonic vaginal transducer with fixed needle guide and other retrieval methods. Fertil Steril 49: 462–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sharma V, Riddle A, Mason BA, Pampiglione J, Campbell S (1988) An analysis of factors influencing the establishment of a clinical pregnancy in an ultrasound-based ambulatory in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 49: 469–478Google Scholar
  145. Sheean LA, Goldfarb JJ, Kiwi R, Utian WH (1986) Arrest of embryo development by ultrasound coupling gels. Fertil Steril 45: 568–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Smith B, Porter R, Ahuja K, Craft J (1984) Ultrasonic assessment of endometrial changes in stimulated cycles in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer program. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 1: 50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Speirs AL, Lopata A, Gronow MJ, Kellow GN, Johnston WIH (1983) Analysis of the benefits and risks of multiple embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 39: 468–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Steptoe PC, Edwards RG (1970) Lararoscopic recovery of preovulatory human oocytes after priming of ovaries with gonadotropins. Lancet I: 683–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Steptoe PC, Edwards RG (1978) Birth after the implantation of a human embryo. Lancet II: 336Google Scholar
  150. Strickler RC, Christianson C, Crane JP, Curato A, Knight AB, Young V (1985) Ultrasound guidance for human embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 43: 54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Swanson M, Sauerbrei EE, Cooperberg PL (1981) Medical implications of ultrasonically detected polycystic ovaries. J Clin Ultrasound 9: 219–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Tal J, Paz B, Samberg I, Lazarov N, Sharf M (1985) Ultrasonographic and clinical correlates of menotropin versus sequential clomiphene citrate: menotropin therapy for induction of ovulation. Fertil Steril 44: 342–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Taylor PJ, Wiseman D, Mahadevan M, Leader A (1986) “Ultrasound rescue”: a successful alternative form of oocyte recovery in patients with periovarian adhesions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 154: 240–244Google Scholar
  154. Taylor KJW, Burns PN, Wells PNT, Conway DI, Hull MGR (1985) Ultrasound Doppler flow studies of the ovarian and uterine arteries. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 92: 240–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Timor-Tritsch IE, Rottem S (1987) Vaginal ultrasonographic study of the Fallopian tube. Obstet Gynecol 70:424–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Timor-Tritsch IE, Rottem S, Thaler I (1988) Review of vagi nal ultrasonography: a description with clinical application. Ultrasound Q 6: 1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Thickman D, Arger P, Tureck R, Blasco L, Mintz M, Coleman B (1986) Sonographic assessment of the endometrium in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. J Ultrasound Med 5: 197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Trotnow S, Habermann PG, Hünlich T, Siebzehnrübl E (1985) A new set of instruments for sonographieally controlled follicular puncture. Arch Gynecol 236: 211–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Van Steirteghem AC, Smitz J, Camus M, Waesberghe L van, Deschacht J, Khan I, Staessen C, Wisanto A, Bourgain C, Devroey P (1988) The luteal phase after in-vitro fertilization and related precedures. Hum Reprod 3:161–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Vargyas JM, Marrs RP, Kletzky OA, Mishell DR (1982) Correlation of ultrasonic measurement of ovarian size and serum estradiol levels in ovulatory patients following clomiphene citrate for in vitro fertilization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 144: 569–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Venturoli S, Paradisi R, Saviotti E, Porcu E, Fabbri R, Orsini LF, Bovicelli L, Flamigni C (1985) Ultrasound study of ovarian and uterine morphology in women with polycystic ovary syndrome before, during and after treatment with cyproterone acetate and ethinyloestradiol. Arch Gynecol 237:1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Vermesh M, Kletzky OA, Davajan V, Israel R (1987) Monitoring techniques to predict and detect ovulation. Fertil Steril 47: 259–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Werlin LB, Weckstein L, Weathersbee PS, Parenicka K, White D, Stone SC (1986) Ultrasound: a technique useful in determining the side of ovulation. Fertil Steril 46: 814–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Wikland M, Nilsson L, Hansson R, Hamberger L, Janson PO (1983) Collection of human oocytes by the use of sonography. Fertil Steril 39: 603–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Wikland M, Enk L, Hammarberg K, Nilsson L (1987) Use of a vaginal transducer for oocyte retrieval in an IVF/ET program. J Clin Ultrasound 15: 245–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wood C, Leeton JF, Talbot JM, Trounson AO (1981) Technique for collecting oocytes for in vitro fertilization. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 88: 756–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Yee B, Barnes RB, Vargyas JM, Marrs RP (1987) Correlation of transabdominal and vaginal ultrasound measurements of follicle size and number with laparoscopic findings for in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 47: 828–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Ying YK, Daly DC, Randolph JF, Soto-Albors CS, Maier DB, Schmidt CL, Riddick DH (1987) Ultrasonographic monitoring of follicular growth for luteal phase defects. Fertil Steril 48: 433–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Ylöstalo P, Rönnberg L, Jouppila P (1979) Measurements of the ovarian follicle by ultrasound in ovulation induction. Fertil Steril 31:651–655PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Bernaschek
    • 1
  • Josef Deutinger
    • 1
  • Alfred Kratochwil
    • 2
  1. 1.II. Universitäts-Frauenklinik WienWienAustria
  2. 2.Allgemeines öffentliches Krankenhaus der Kurstadt BadenBadenGemany

Personalised recommendations