Risks of Salt Depletion and Salt Excess

  • D. Ely
  • B. Folkow
  • N. F. Paradise


Sodium homeostasis is maintained by an abundance of mechanisms affecting Na intake, reabsorption and excretion (Denton 1982; Folkow 1982) that allow most species to maintain an internal Na equilibrium even when salt intakes are forced towards severe deprivation or overt excess. The control mechanisms become increasingly taxed and inadequate when salt intake is severely restricted or excessive. At one end of the spectrum lies cardiovascular collapse and at the other hypertension; both responses are often assumed to be more or less direct consequences of hypo- and hypervolemia, respectively.


Mean Arterial Pressure Salt Intake Restraint Stress Transmitter Release Primary Hypertension 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ambrosioni E, Costa FV, Borghi C, Montebugoli S, Giordani MF, Magnani B (1982) Effects of moderate salt restriction in intralymphocytic sodium and pressor response to stress in borderline hypertension. Hypertension 4:789–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson DE (1984) Interactions of stress, salt and blood pressure. Annu Rev Physiol 46:143–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bohr DF (1986) Hypertension studies in swine. In: Stanton HC, Mersman HJ (eds) Swine in Cardiovascular research. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. Brody MJ, Fink GD, Buggy H, Haywood JR, Gordon FJ, Johnson AK (1978) The role of anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) region in experimental hypertension. Circ Res 43 [Suppl I]:2–13Google Scholar
  5. Brunner DB, Brünier M, Brunner HR (1983) Plasma vasopressin in rats: effect of sodium angiotensin and catecholamines. Heart Circ Physiol 13:H259-H265Google Scholar
  6. Cantin M, Genest J (1985) The heart and the atrial natriuretic factor. Endocr Rev 6:107–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen Y-F, Meng Q, Wyss JM, Jin H, Oparil S (1988) High NaCl diet reduces hypo thalamic turnover in hypertensive rats. Hypertension 11:55–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. DeChamplain J, Van Amerigen MR (1980) Evidence for the participation of sodium-sensitive positive catecholaminergic neurons in the maintenance of DOCA-sodium hypertension un rats. Clin Sci 59:259s-262sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. DeChamplain J, Krakoff L, Axelrod J (1969) Interrelationships of sodium intake, hypertension and norepinephrine storage in the rat. Circ Res 24 [suppl 1]:75–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Denton D (1982) The hunger for salt: Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Denton DA, Coghlan JP, Fei DT, McKinley M, Nelson J, Scoggins B, Tarsan E, Tregear GW, Tresham JJ, Weisinnoer R (1986) Stress, ACTH, salt intake and high blood pressure. Clin Exp Hypertens [A]6:403–415Google Scholar
  12. De Wardener HE, MacGregor W (1983) The natriuretic hormone and its possible relationships to hypertension. In: Genest J, Kuchel O (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill New York pp 89–94Google Scholar
  13. Dietz R, Schonig A, Rascher W, Strasser R, Kubler W (1980) Enhanced sympathetic activity caused by salt loading in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin Sci 59:171–177Google Scholar
  14. Duhm J, Gobal BO, Beck F-X (1983) Sodium and potassium ion transport accelerations in erythrocytes of DOC, DOC-salt, one clip-two kidney and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The role of hypokalemia and cell volume. Hypertension 5:642–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunphy G (1986) Biochemical changes associated with the development of hypertension in the SHR on varying sodium diets and treatments. M S Thesis Dept Biology Univ of Akron OH 44325.Google Scholar
  16. Ely DL, Wiegand J (1983) Stress and high sodium effects on blood pressure and brain catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Hypertens [A]5:1559–1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ely DL, Friberg P, Nilsson H, Folkow B (1985) Blood pressure and heart rate responses to mental stress in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive (WKY) rats on various sodium diets. Acta Physiol Scand 123:159–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ely DL, Norlander M, Friberg P, Folkow B (1986) The effects of varying sodium diets on haemo-dynamics and fluid balance in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Acta Physiol Scand 126: 199–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ely DL, Thoren P, Weigand J, Folkow B (1987) Sodium appetite as well as 24-hour variations of fluid balance, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in WKY and SHR when on various sodium diets. Acta Physiol Scand 129:81–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ernsberger P, Azar S, Azar P (1985) The role of the anteromedial hypothalamus in Dahl hypertension. Brain Rex Bull 15:651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Folkow B (1982) Physiological aspects of primary hypertension. Physiol Rev 62:347–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Folkow B, Ely DL (1987) Dietary sodium effects on cardiovascular and sympathetic neuroeffector functions as studied in various rat models (ed. review). J Hypertens 5:383–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Folkow B, Dibona GF, Hjemdahl P, Thoren PH, Wallin G (1983) Measurements of plasma noradrenaline concentrations in human primary hypertension. A word of caution on their applicability for assessing neurogenic contributions. Hypertension 5:399–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Folkow B, Ely DL, Nilsson H, Friberg P, Norlander M. Karlstrom G, Wählander H (1985) Effects of 240-fold variations in sodium intake on cardiovascular function and neuroeffector characteristics in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats. Acta Physiol Scand 124 [Suppl 542]: 191Google Scholar
  25. Freeman RH, Davis JO (1983) Factors controlling renin secretion and metabolism. In: Genest J, Kuchel O (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill New York pp 225–250Google Scholar
  26. Freeman RH, Davis JO, Watkins BE, Lonmeier TE (1977) Mechanisms involved in two-kidney renal hypertension induced by constriction of one renal artery. Circ Res, 40 [Suppl 1]: 129–135Google Scholar
  27. Fregly M, Kare MR (eds) (1982) The role of salt in cardiovascular hypertension. Academic New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Friberg P, Ely DL, Wählander H, Nilsson H, Folkow B (1986) Cardiac design and pressure-volume characteristics of the left ventricle in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats after various dietary sodium treatments. Acta Physiol Scand 126:477–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gavras H (1986) How does salt raise blood pressure? A hypothesis. Hypertension 8:83–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Göthberg G, Lundin S, Aurell M, Folkow B (1983) Response to slow graded bleeding in salt-depleted rats. J Hypertens l[Suppl 2]:24–26Google Scholar
  31. Goto A, Ikeda T, Tobian L, Iwai J, Johnson MA (1981) Brain lesions in the paraventricular nuclei and catecholaminergic neurons minimize salt hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Clin Sci, 61 [Suppl 7]:53s-55sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gradin K, Dahlof C, Persson B (1986a) A low dietary sodium intake reduces neuronal noradrenaline releases and the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 332:364–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gradin K, Dahlof C, Persson B (1986b) Neuronal release of noradrenaline (NA) and blood pressure (BP) in SHR maintained on a low, normal and high sodium diet. 11th Meeting of the International Society of Hypertension 329 abstract.Google Scholar
  34. Gunther S, Gimbrone MA, Alexander RW (1981) Regulation by angiotensin II of its receptors in resistance blood vessels. Nature 287:230–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guyton AC, Coleman TG, Cowley AW Jr, Manning RD, Norman RA Jr, Ferguson JD (1974) A system analysis approach to understanding long-range blood pressure control and hypertension. Circ Res 35:159–176Google Scholar
  36. Jandhyala B, Ansari A (1986) Elevation of sodium levels in the cerebral ventricles of anesthetized dogs triggers the release of an inhibitor of ouabain-sensative sodium potassium-ATPase into the circulation. Clin Sci 70:103–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jandhyala B, Gothberg G, Folkow B (1980) Resistance vessels responsiveness in the Okamoto-Aoki spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) compared with the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and ordinary Wistar normotensive controls (NCR) before and after ouabain inhibition of the membrane sodium and potassium pump. In:Zumkley H, Losse H (eds) Thieme, Stuttgart, Intracellular electrolytes and arterial hypertension, pp 127–134Google Scholar
  38. Johnson CJ (1985) Vasopressin in circulatory control and hypertension. J Hapertens. [A]3:557–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koepke JP, DiBona GF (1985) High sodium intake enhances renal nerve and antinatriuretic responses to stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 7:357–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kuchel O (1983) The autonomic nervous system and blood pressure regulation in human hypertension. In: Genest J, Kuchel O (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill New York pp 140–160Google Scholar
  41. Lee TC, VanDerWal B, Dewied D (1968) Influence of the anterior pituitary on the aldosterone secretory response to dietary sodium restriction in the rat. J Endocrinol 42:465–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Limas C, Limas CJ (1985) Cardiac B-adrenergic receptors in salt-dependent genetic hypertension. Hypertension 7:760–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Luft FC, Fineberg NS, Sloan RS (1982) Estimating dietary sodium intake in individuals receiving a randomly fluctuating intake. Hypertension 4:805–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lundin S, Thorén P (1982) Renal function and sympathetic activity during mental stress in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Acta Physiol Scand, 115:115–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lundin S, Herlitz H, Hállback-Nordlander M, Ricksten S-E, Gothberg G, Berglund G (1982) Sodium balance during development of hypertension in the spontaneously hgypertensive rat. Acta Physiol Scand, 115:317–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Luscher TF, Vanhoutte PM, Raij L (1987) Antihypertensive treatment normalizes decreased endothelium-dependent relaxations in rats with salt-induced hypertension. Hypertension [Suppl III] III-93-III-197Google Scholar
  47. Mark AL, Lawton WJ, Abbout FM, Fitz AE, Connor WE, Heistad DD (1975) Effects of high and low sodium intake on arterial pressure and forearm vascular resistance in borderline hypertension. Circ Res 36–37 [Suppl 1]: 194–198Google Scholar
  48. McCaa RE, Young DB, Guyton AC, McCaa CS (1974) Evidence for a role of an unidentified pituitary factor in regulating aldosterone secretion during altered sodium balance. Circ Res 34–35 [Suppl I]: 115Google Scholar
  49. McCaa RE, Langford HG, Montalvo JM, Andy DJ, Read VH, McCaa CS (1981) Regulation of aldosterone biosynthesis during sodium deficiency. Hypertension, 3 [Suppl I]: 174–180Google Scholar
  50. Meldrum MJ, Xue C-S, Badino L, Westfall TC (1985) Effect of sodium depletion on the release of (3H) norepinephrine from central and peripheral tissue of wistar-kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 7:59–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nakamura K, Gerold M, Thoenen H (1970) Experimental hypertension of the rat: reciprocal changes of norepinephrine turnover in heart and brainstem. Jpn J Pharmacol 20:605–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nilsson H, Ely DL, Friberg P, Folkow B (1984) Effects of low and high Na diets on cardiovascular dynamics in normotensive and hypertensive rats: neuroeffector characteristics of the resistance vessels. J Hypertens 2 [Suppl 3]:433–435Google Scholar
  53. Nilsson H, Ely DL, Friberg P, Karlstrom G, Folkow B (1985) Effects of high and low sodium diets on the resistance vessels and their adrenergic vasoconstrictor fibre control in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats. Acta Physiol Scand 125:323–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Okuno T, Winternitz SR, Lindheimer MD, Oparil S (1983) Central catecholamine depletion, vasopression and blood pressure in the DOCA/NaCl rat. Heart Circ Physiol 13:H807-H811Google Scholar
  55. Page I (1987) Hypertension Mechanisms. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 226–248Google Scholar
  56. Palmore WP, Mulrow PJ (1967) Control of aldosterone secretion by the pituitary gland. Science 158:1481–1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Paradise NF, Sadri F, Ely DL (1986) Left ventricular (LV) function and fluid compartmentalization in WKY and SHR fed high or low sodium diet. J Hypertens 4 [Suppl 5]:S189-S191Google Scholar
  58. Pfeffer MA, Pfeffer JM, Mirsky I, Iwai J (1984) Cardiac hypertrophy and performance of Dahl hypertensive rats on graded salt diets. Hypertension 6:475–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Postnov YV, Orlov SN (1985) Ion transport across plasma membrane in primary hypertension. Physiol Rev 65:907–936Google Scholar
  60. Rapp JP (1982) Dahl salt-susceptible and salt-resistent rats. Hypertension 4:753–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Rho JH, Hough K (1984) Differential stimulation of synaptosomal nosepinehprine uptake by high salt diet in Dahl rats. Hypertension 2:461–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rocchini AP, Cant JR, Barger AC (1977) Carotid sinus reflex in dogs with low-to high-sodium intake. Am J Physiol 233:H196-H202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Schaffelmeer ANM, Mulder AH (1983) (3H) Noradrenaline release from brain slices induced by an increase in the intracellular sodium concentration role of intracellular calcium stores. J Neurochem 40:615–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sen S, Bravo EL, Valenzuela R, Bumpus FM (1981) Localization purification and biological activities of new adosterone stimulating factor. Hypertension 3 [Suppl I]: 171–180Google Scholar
  65. Sesosko S, Pegram BL, Willis GW, Fröhlich ED (1984) DOCA-salt induced malignant hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 2:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sjöblom N, Ely DL, Folkow B, Nilsson H (1988) Influence of presynaptic-receptors and transmitter reuptake on the vasoconstrictor fibre control at high and low Na intake. Acta Physiol Scand (in press).Google Scholar
  67. Sjövall H, Ely DL, Westlander G, Kohlin T, Jodal M, Lundgren O (1986) The adrenergic nervous control of fluid transport in the small intestine of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Acta Physiol Scand 126:557–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Soltis EE, Bohr DF (1986) Central action of sodium chloride on blood pressure and vascular responsiveness in the rat. Hypertension 8 [Suppl I]: 152–155Google Scholar
  69. Sybertz EJ, Salvin CS, Morgan RM (1981) Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition with Captopril on blood pressure and adrenergic function in normal and sodium restricted rats. Clin Exp Hypertens [A]3:105–107Google Scholar
  70. Takeshita A, Mark AL (1978) Neurogenic contribution to hinquarters vasoconstriction during high sodium intake in Dahl strain of genetically hypertensive rats. Circ Res 43 [Suppl I]: 186–191Google Scholar
  71. Takeshita A, Mark AL, Brody MJ (1979) Prevention of salt-induced hypertension in the Dahl strain by 6-hydroxydopamine. Am J Physiol 236:H48-H52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Toal CB, Leenen FHH (1987) Dietary sodium restriction, blood pressure and sympathetic acitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 5:107–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Williams GH, Dluhy RG (1983) Control of aldosterone secretion. In: Genest J, Kuchel O (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 320–337Google Scholar
  74. Winternitz SR, Oparil S (1982) Sodium-neural intractions in the development of spontaneous hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens [A]44:751–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yamori Y, Ooshim A, Okamoto K (1973) Deviation of central norepinephrine metabolism in hypertensive rats. Jpn Circ J 37:1235–1245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zidek W, Vetter H, Zumkley H, Losse H (1981) Intrecellularcation activities and concentrations in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats. Clin Sci 61:41S-43SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Zimmermann BG, Sybertz EJ, Wong PC (1984) Editorial review, interaction between sympathetic and renin angiotensin system. J Hypertens 2:581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Ely
  • B. Folkow
  • N. F. Paradise

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations