Skip to main content

Functions of the Vascular System

  • Chapter

Abstract

General structure and function of the vascular system. The vessels — arteries, capillaries and veins — together with the heart constitute the cardiovascular system. This is a transport system, within which the medium to be transported (blood) is propelled by a pump (the heart) in a closed circuit through elastic tubes (vessels). This continual circulation of fluid throughout the body serves, most importantly, as a means of delivery and removal of substances; it provides all the living cells of the organism with the materials required for their normal functions (e.g., O2 and nutrients), and it carries away the products of cell metabolism (CO2 and other metabolites). These substances do not enter and leave the bloodstream directly; their passage is indirect, by way of the interstitial (extracellular) fluid. The many other functions of the circulatory system, discussed elsewhere in this book, are summarized on p. 402.

Keywords

  • Cardiac Output
  • Stroke Volume
  • Vascular System
  • Volume Flow
  • Venous Return

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-73831-9_20
  • Chapter length: 63 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   74.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-73831-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Textbooks and Handbooks

  1. Aviado, D.M.: The Lung Circulation. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Pergamon Press, Inc., 1965

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bauereisen, E. (Ed.): Physiologie des Kreislaufs, Bd. 1 Arteriensystem, Capillarbett und Organkreisläufe, Fetal- und Placentakreislauf. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1971

    Google Scholar 

  3. Brecher, G.A.: Venous Return. London: Grune and Stratton 1965

    Google Scholar 

  4. Burton, A.C.: Physiologie und Biophysik des Kreislaufs. Stuttgart-New York: Schattauer 1969

    Google Scholar 

  5. Caro, C.G., Pedley, T.J., Schroter, R.C., Seed, W.A.: The Mechanics of the Circulation. New York-Toronto: Oxford University Press 1978

    Google Scholar 

  6. Folkow, B., Neil, E.: Circulation. London-Toronto: Oxford University Press 1971

    Google Scholar 

  7. Gauer, O.H.: Kreislauf des Blutes. In: Gauer/Kramer/Jung: Physiologie des Menschen. Bd. 3: Herz und Kreislauf. München-Berlin-Wien: Urban & Schwarzenberg 1972

    Google Scholar 

  8. Guyton, A.C.: Textbook of Medical Physiology. 5th Ed. Philadelphia-London: Saunders 1976

    Google Scholar 

  9. Handbook of Physiology, Section 2: The Cardiovascular System. Vol. II Vascular Smooth Muscle. D.F. Bohr, A.P. Somlyo, H.V. Sparks, Jr. (Eds). Bethesda, Maryland: American Physiological Society 1980

    Google Scholar 

  10. Handbook of Physiology, Section 2: The Cardiovascular System. Vol. III Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow. J.T. Shepherd, F.M. Abboud (Eds). Bethesda. Maryland: American Physiological Society 1983

    Google Scholar 

  11. Handbook of Physiology, Section 2: The Cardiovascular System. Vol. IV Microcirculation. E.M. Renkin, C.C. Michel (Eds). Bethesda, Maryland: American Physiological Society 1984

    Google Scholar 

  12. Heymans, E., Neil, E.: Reflexogenic Areas of the Cardiovascular System. London: Churchill 1958

    Google Scholar 

  13. Johnson, P.C.: Peripheral Circulation. New York-Chichester-Brisbane-Toronto: Wiley & Sons 1978

    Google Scholar 

  14. Keatinge, W.R., Harman, M.C.: Mechanisms Controlling Blood Vessels. London: Academic Press 1980

    Google Scholar 

  15. McDonald, D.A.: Blood Flow in Arteries. 2nd Ed. London: Arnold 1974

    Google Scholar 

  16. Master, A.M., Garfield, C.I., Walters, M.B.: Normal Blood Pressure and Hypertension. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger 1952

    Google Scholar 

  17. Meesen, H.: Mikrozirkulation. In: Handbuch der allgemeinen Pathologie III/7. Berlin: Springer 1977

    Google Scholar 

  18. Milnor, W.R., in: Mountcastle, V.B.: Medical Physiology, 13th Ed. Saint Louis: Mosby 1974

    Google Scholar 

  19. Ruch, T.C., Patton, H.D.: Physiology and Biophysics, Vol.II: Circulation, Respiration and Fluid Balance. Philadelphia: Saunders 1970

    Google Scholar 

  20. Rushmer, R.F.: Cardiovascular Dynamics. Philadelphia: Saunders 1970

    Google Scholar 

  21. Shepherd, J.T., Vanhoutte, P.M.: Veins and their Control. London: Saunders 1975

    Google Scholar 

  22. Shepherd, J.T., Vanhoutte, P.M.: The Human Cardiovascular System — Facts and Concepts. New York: Raven 1979

    Google Scholar 

  23. Wade, O.L., Bishop, J.M.: Cardiac Output and Regional Blood Flow. Oxford: Blackwell 1962

    Google Scholar 

  24. Wetterer, E., Kenner, Th.: Grundlagen der Dynamik des Arterienpulses. Berlin: Springer 1968

    Google Scholar 

  25. Wiedemann, M.P., Tuma, R.F., Mayrovitz, H.N.: An Introduction to Microcirculation. Biophysics and Bioengineering Series Vol. 2. London: Academic Press NY 1981

    Google Scholar 

  26. Wiggers, C.J.: Physiology in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger 1949

    Google Scholar 

Original Papers and Reviews

  1. Blaine, E.H., Davis, J.O.: Evidence of a renal vascular mechanism in renin release; observations with graded stimulation by aortic constriction. Circulat. Res. 28, suppl. 2, 118 (1971)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Brecher, G.A., Hubay, C.A.: Pulmonary blood flow and venous return during spontaneous respiration. Circulat. Res. 3, 210 (1955)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Colman, R.W.: Formation of human plasmakinin. New Engl. J. Med 291, 509 (1974)

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Crone, C., Christensen, O.: Transcapillary Transport of Small Solutes and Water. In: Guyton, A.C., Young, D.B. (Eds): Cardiovascular Physiology III Vol. 28, p. 149. Baltimore: University Park Press 1979

    Google Scholar 

  5. Drappatz, B., Witzler, E.: Unterschiedliche Reaktionen von Widerstands- und Kapazitätsgefäßen der Haut an den Armen bei Beinmuskelarbeit bis zur Erschöpfung. Int. Z. Angew. Physiol. 28, 321 (1970)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Folkow, B.: Description of the myogenic hypothesis. Circulat. Res. XIV, XV, Suppl. I, 279 (1964)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Green, J.F.: Determinants of Systemic Blood Flow. In: Guyton, A.C., Young, D.B. (Eds): Cardiovascular Physiology III, Vol. 18, p. 33. Baltimore: University Park Press 1979

    Google Scholar 

  8. Guyton, A.C., Coleman, T.G., Cowley, A.W., Jr., Manning, R.D., Jr., Norman, R.A., Jr., Ferguson, J.D.: A system analysis approach to understanding long-range arterial blood pressure control and hypertension. Circulat. Res. 35, 159 (1974)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Guyton, A.C., Cowley, A.W., Jr., Young, D.B., Coleman, T.G., Hall, J.E., DeClue, J.W.: Integration and Control of Circulatory Function. In: Guyton, A.C., Cowley, A.W., Jr., (Eds.): Cardiovascular Physiology II, Vol. 9, p. 341. Baltimore: University Park Press 1976

    Google Scholar 

  10. Guyton, A.C., Jones, C.E.: Central venous pressure: physiological significance and clinical implications. Amer. Heart J. 86, 432 (1973)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Guyton, A.C., Coleman, T.G., Granger, H.J.: Circulation: overall regulation: Ann. Rev. Physiol. 34, 13 (1972)

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Guyton, A.C., Taylor, A.E., Granger, H.J.: Circulatory Physiology II: Dynamics and Control of Body Fluids. Philadelphia: Saunders 1975

    Google Scholar 

  13. Haddy, F.J.: Vasomotion in systemic arteries, small vessels, and veins determined by direct resistance measurements. Minn. Med. 41, 162 (1958)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Haddy, F.J., Scott, J.B., Grega, G.J.: Peripheral Circulation: Fluid Transfer Across the Microvascular Membrane. In: Guyton, A.C., Cowley, A.W., Jr. (Eds.): Cardiovascular Physiology II, Vol. 9, p. 63. Baltimore: University Park Press 1976

    Google Scholar 

  15. Hainsworth, R., Linden, R.J.: Reflex Control of Vascular Capacitance. In: Guyton, A.C., Young, D.B. (Eds): Cardiovascular Physiology III, Vol. 18, p. 67. Baltimore: University Park Press 1979

    Google Scholar 

  16. Hilton, S.M., Spyer, K.M.: Central nervous regulation of vascular resistance. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 42, 399 (1980)

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Hunyor, S., Ludbrook, J., Shaw, J., McGrath, M.: The Peripheral Circulation. Amsterdam: Excepta Medica 1984

    Google Scholar 

  18. Körner, P.I.: Integrative neural cardiovascular control. Physiol. Rev. 51, 312 (1971)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Longhurst, J.C., Mitchell, J.H.: Reflex Control of the Circulation by Afferents from Skeletal Muscle. In: Guyton, A.C., Young, D.B. (Eds): Cardiovascular Physiology III, Vol. 18, p. 125. Baltimore: University Park Press 1979

    Google Scholar 

  20. Lundgren, O., Jodal, M.: Regional blood flow. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 37, 395 (1975)

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Mancia, G., Lorenz, R.R., Shepherd, J.T.: Reflex Control of Circulation by Heart and Lungs. In: Guyton, A.C., Cowley, A.W. Jr. (Eds): Cardiovascular Physiology II, Vol. 9, p. 111. Baltimore: University Park Press 1976

    Google Scholar 

  22. Pollack, A.A., Wood, E.H.: Venous pressure in the saphenous vein at the ankle in man during exercise and changes in posture. J. appl. Physiol. 1, 649 (1949)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Reed, J.H., Jr., Wood, E.H.: Effect of body position on vertical distribution of pulmonary blood flow. J. appl. Physiol. 28, 303 (1970)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Rowell, L.B.: Human cardiovascular adjustments to exercise and thermal stress. Physiol. Rev. 54, 75 (1974)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Schachter, M.: Kallikreins and kinins. Physiol. Rev. 49, 509 (1969)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Scott, J.B., Rudko, M., Radawski, D., Haddy, F.J.: Role of osmolarity, K+, H+, Mg++, and O2 in local blood flow regulation. Amer. J. Physiol. 218, 338 (1970)

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Schmid-Schönbein, H.: Microrheology of Erythocytes, Blood Viscosity, and the Distribution of Blood Flow in the Microcirculation. In: Guyton, A.C., Cowley, A.W., Jr. (Eds): Cardiovascular Physiology II, Vol. 9, p. 1. Baltimore: University Park Press 1976

    Google Scholar 

  28. Smith, O.A.: Reflex and central mechanisms involved in the control of the heart and circulation. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 36, 93 (1974)

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Stainsby, W.N.: Local control of regional blood flow. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 35, 151 (1973)

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Westfall, Th.C.: Neuroeffector mechanisms. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 42, 338 (1980)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  31. Witzler, E.: Venous Tone and Regulation of the Circulation. In: Les concepts de Claude Bernhard sur le milieu interieur. Paris: Masson 1967

    Google Scholar 

  32. Zelis, R.: Peripheral Circulations. New-York: Grune and Stratton 1975

    Google Scholar 

  33. Zweifach, B.W., Silberberg, A.: The Interstitial-Lymphatic Flow System. In: Guyton, A.C., Young, D.B. (Eds): Cardiovascular Physiology III, Vol. 18, p. 215. Baltimore: University Park Press 1979

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1989 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Witzleb, E. (1989). Functions of the Vascular System. In: Schmidt, R.F., Thews, G. (eds) Human Physiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-73831-9_20

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-73831-9_20

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-73833-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-73831-9

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive