Kala-azar Imported to the Federal Republic of Germany 1943–1980

  • E. Vanek
  • L. Knaus


Kala-azar is the visceral form of leishmaniasis caused by the protozoon Leish-mania donovani, endemic in several parts of the tropics and subtropics. There are three main foci where tourists from central Europe may contract this disease, which is fatal for non-immunes: India and East Africa, but also the Mediterranean (Fig. 1), where kala-azar is a significant, but not predominant, disease with about 500 cases/year among the indigenous population (Stürchler 1981). The infection occurs there only in places suitable as biotopes for sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus, which transmit the infecting agent from its main reservoir - dogs and foxes - to man. The sandfly prefers dark and moist breeding habitats, such as old masonry and caves, and being unable to fly over longer distances it sticks to these places, flying only near the ground. Unfortunately many of our tourists prefer to spend their holidays in old farmhouses, bungalows, camping places and tents. It takes only a few hours by plane, or a day’s journey by car, to reach the beaches of the Mediterranean Sea in Italy or Yugoslavia. The automobile - favoured by families with children and/or dogs - also allows tourists to choose their own camping site.


Federal Republic Visceral Leishmaniasis Indigenous Population Main Reservoir Periodic Fever 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Knaus L (1984) Importierte Kala Azar in Deutschland. Thesis, University of UlmGoogle Scholar
  2. Leupold DM, Wild M, Vanek E, Kleihauer E, Fabel U, Kosenow W (1979) Leishma-niosis visceralis (Kala azar). Padiatr Prax 21:643–652Google Scholar
  3. Reeb A (1978) Urlaubs- und Erhohmgsreisen 1976/1977. Bundesgesundheitsblatt18:225–232Google Scholar
  4. Stürchler D (1981) Endemiegebiete tropischer Infektionskrankheiten. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  5. WHO (1979) Receptivity to malaria and other parasitic diseases. Report on a WHO-Working Group, 11–15 Sept 1978, Izmir. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen EURO reports and studies no 15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Vanek
  • L. Knaus

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations