Factors Influencing Cadmium and Lead Concentrations in Hair of Children

  • M. Wilhelm
  • I. Lombeck
  • D. Hafner
  • F. K. Ohnesorge
Conference paper

Abstract

The use of hair analysis as an indicator of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure of children has not been definitively established (1). Two main problems impair interpretation of trace element concentrations in hair: 1. A distinction between endogenous and exogenous metals cannot be always made. 2. Factors such as sex, age, hair color etc. may cause great interindividual differences in hair 1 metal levels.

Keywords

Zinc Quartz Dust Cadmium Sulfuric Acid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Krause, C. and M. Chutsch (eds) (1987) Haaranalyse in Medizin und Umwelt, Schriftenreihe des Vereins für Wassser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene 71, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    Wilhelm M., D. Hafner, I. Lombeck, and F.K. Ohnesorge, Variables influencing cadmium concentrations in hair of preschool children living in different areas of the Federal Republic of Germany, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, in press.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Barlow P.J., P.E. Francois, I.J.L. Goldberg, I. Richardson, M.G.A. Izmeth, K. Kumpeson and P. Sykes (1986) Trace element abnormalities in long-stay hyperactive mentally handicapped children and agitated senile dements, J. R. Soc. Med., 79, 581–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. (4).
    Wibowo, A.A.E., R.F.M. Herber, H.A. Das, N. Roele- veld, and R.L. Zielhuis (1986), Levels of metals in hair of young children as an indicator of environmental pollution. Environ. Res., 40, 346–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Wecker, L., S.B. Miller, S.R. Cochran, D.L. Dugger, W.D. Johnson (1985) Trace element concentrations in hair from autistic children, J. Ment. Defic. Res., 29, 15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. (6).
    Bos, A.J.J., C.C.A.H. van der Stap, V. Valkovic, R. D. Vis, and H. Verheul (1985) Incorporation routes of elements into human hair: implications for hair analysis, Sci. Total. Environ., 42, 157–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    Ewers, U., R. Dolgner, A. Brockhaus, I. Freier, E. Jermann, W. Hilser, K. Domisch, and R. Braun (1984) Untersuchungen zur Blei- und Cadmiumbelastung von Kindern und Jugendlichen in einem schwermeta1lbe- lasteten Gebiet (Stolberg), öff. Gesundh.-Wes., 46, 231–236.Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    Landesanstalt für Immissionsschutz des Landes Nord- rhein-Westfalen (1985) Schriftenreihe 63, Verlag W. Girardet, Essen.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Wilhelm
    • 1
  • I. Lombeck
    • 2
  • D. Hafner
    • 3
  • F. K. Ohnesorge
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ToxicologyUniversity of DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany
  2. 2.Children’s HospitalUniversity of DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany
  3. 3.Institute of PharmacologyUniversity of DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany

Personalised recommendations