Factors Influencing Cadmium and Lead Concentrations in Hair of Children

  • M. Wilhelm
  • I. Lombeck
  • D. Hafner
  • F. K. Ohnesorge
Conference paper


The use of hair analysis as an indicator of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure of children has not been definitively established (1). Two main problems impair interpretation of trace element concentrations in hair: 1. A distinction between endogenous and exogenous metals cannot be always made. 2. Factors such as sex, age, hair color etc. may cause great interindividual differences in hair 1 metal levels.


Trace Element Concentration Hair Color Hair Analysis External Contamination Impaired Health Status 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Wilhelm
    • 1
  • I. Lombeck
    • 2
  • D. Hafner
    • 3
  • F. K. Ohnesorge
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ToxicologyUniversity of DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany
  2. 2.Children’s HospitalUniversity of DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany
  3. 3.Institute of PharmacologyUniversity of DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany

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