Diagnose der Hyperprolaktinämie Basiswerte und Funktionstests unter physiologischen und pathologischen Bedingungen

  • J. S. E. Dericks-Tan

Zusammenfassung

Die Diagnose einer Hyperprolaktinämie wird gestellt mit Hilfe einer Prolaktinbestimmung im Serum und der richtigen Interpretation des Meßergebnisses, das gegenüber dem Normbereich einen erhöhten Wert zeigt.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. D’Agata R, Aliffl A, Mageri G, Mongioi A, Vicari E, Gulizia S (1982) Dynamics of PRL release in galactorrhoeic normoprolactinaemic women. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 101:1–4Google Scholar
  2. Alger M, Vazquez-Matute L, Mason M, Canales ES, Zarate A (1980) Polycystic ovarian disease associated with hyperprolactinemia and defective metoclopramide response. Fertil Steril 34: 70–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen AN, Pedersen H, Larsen JF, Djursing H (1984) Preserved prolactin fluctuation and response to metoclopramide in ovulatory, infertile, hyperprolactinemic women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 63:141–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armeanu MC, Frölich M, Lequin RM (1986) Circadian rhythm of prolactin during the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 46: 315–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Badawi M, Van Exter C, Delogne-Desnoeck J, Van Meenen F, Robyn C (1978) Cord serum prolactin in relation to the time of the day, the sex of the neonate and the birth weight. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 87: 241–247Google Scholar
  6. Baranowska B, Jeske W, Niewiadomska A, Rozbicka G, Walczak L, Zgliczynski S (1983) Enhanced serum prolactin concentration after metoclopramide stimulation in idiopathic oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Andrologia 15: 554–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barbarino A, De Marinis L, Maira G, Menini E, Anile C (1978) Serum prolactin response to thy- rotropin-releasing hormone and metoclopramide in patients with prolactin-secreting tumors before and after transsphenoidal surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47:1148–1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbarino A, De Marinis L, Mancini A, Menini E, D’Amico C, Passeri M, Sambo P, Anile C, Maira G (1985) Prolactin dynamics in patients with non-secreting tumours of the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 110:10–16Google Scholar
  9. Barnes AE, Crissman JD, Azoury RS, Schneider DP (1981) Association of a prolactin secreting pituitary microadenoma and endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 58: 391–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnes RB, Mileikowsky GN, Cha KY, Spencer CA, Lobo RA (1986) Effects of dopamine and metoclopramide in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 63: 506–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beck W, Wuttke W (1980) Diurnal variations of plasma luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin in boys and girls from birth to puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 635–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bigazzi R, Ronga R, Lancranjan I, Ferraro S, Branchoni F, Buzzoni P, Martorana G, Scarselli G, Del Pozo E (1979) A pregnancy in an acromegalic woman during bromocriptine treatment: effects on GH and PRL in the maternal, fetal and amniotic compartments. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48: 9–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blank MS, Dufau ML (1985) Bioactivity of circulating prolactin during the menstrual cycles of asymptomatic hyperprolactinemic and normoprolaetinemic women. In: MacLeod RM, Thorner MO, Scapagnini U (Hrsg) Prolactin. Basic and clinical correlates. Liviana, Padova, pp 773–778Google Scholar
  14. Bohnet HG, Greiwe M, Hanker JP, Aragona C, Schneider HPG (1978) Effects of cimetidine on prolactin, LH and sex steroid secretion in male and female volunteers. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 88: 428–434Google Scholar
  15. Bohnet HG, Fischer R, Weise HC, Leidenberger FA (1984) Die diagnostische Wertigkeit eines Prolaktin-Stimulationstestes bei infertilen Frauen mit Galaktorrhoe. Fortschr Med 102: 394–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boulanger CM, Mashchak CA, Chang RJ (1985) Lack of tumor reduction in hyperprolactinemic women with extrasellar macroadenomas treated with bromocriptine. Fertil Steril 44: 532–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Canfield CJ, Bates RW (1965) Nonpuerperal galactorrhea. New Engl J Med 273: 897–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carlson HE, Wasser HL, Levin SR, Wilkins JN (1983) Prolactin stimulation by meals is related to protein content. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57: 334–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carlson HE, Wasser HL, Reidelberger RD (1985) Beer-induced prolactin secretion: A clinical and laboratory study of the role of salsolinol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60: 673–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cetel NS, Quigley ME, Yen SSC (1985) Naloxone-induced prolactin secretion in women: Evidence against a direct prolactin stimulatory effect of endogenous opiods. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60:191–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chadwick A (1963) Detection and assay of prolactin by the local lactogenic response in the rabbit. J Endocrinol 27: 253–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chiodini P, Liuzzi A, Cozzi R et al (1981) Size reduction of macroprolactinomas by bromocriptine or lisuride treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53: 737–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Czernichow P, Dauzet MC, Broyer M, Rappaport R (1976) Abnormal TSH, PRL and GH response to TSH releasing factor in chronic renal failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 630–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dericks-Tan JSE, Eberlein L, Streb C, Taubert HD (1978) The effect of oral contraceptives and of bromocriptine upon pituitary stimulation by LH-RH and TRH. Contraception 17: 79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dericks-Tan JSE, Jost A, Schwedes U, Taubert HD (1984) Pseudohypergonadotropinemia and pseudohyperprolactinemia induced by heterophilic antibodies? Klin Wochenschr 62: 265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Djursing H, Hagen C, Møller J, Christiansen C (1981) Short- and long-term fluctuations in plasma prolactin concentration in normal subjects. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 97:1–6Google Scholar
  27. Esiri MM, Bevan JS, Burke CW, Adams CBT (1986) Effect of bromocriptine treatment on the fibrous tissue content of prolactin-secreting and nonfunctioning macroadenomas of the pituitary gland. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 63: 383–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ferrari C, Caldara R, Barbieri C, Cambielli M, Bierti L, Romussi M (1979) Prolactin release by intravenous cimetidine in man: Evidence for a suprapituitary locus of action. Clin Endocrinol (0x0 11: 619–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Finley BE, Amico J, Castillo M, Seitchik RN & J (1986) Oxytocin and prolactin responses associated with nipple stimulation contraction stress tests. Obstet Gynecol 67: 836–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goldhaber G, Zuckerman Z, Shani J, Cohen JJ (1977) Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on serum prolactin levels in men with azoospermia. J Reprod Fertil 49:135–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gonzalez-Villapando C, Szabo M, Frohman LA (1980) Central nervous system-mediated stimulation of prolactin secretion by cimetidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist: impaired responsiveness in patients with prolactin secreting tumors and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 51:1417–1424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. L’Hermite M, Debusschere PM (1982) Potent 48 hours inhibition of prolactin secretion by pergolide in hyperprolactinaemic women. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 101: 481–483Google Scholar
  33. Holdaway IM, Evans MC, Sheehan A, Ibbertson HK (1984) Low thyroxine levels in some hyperprolactinemic patients due to dopaminergic suppression of thyrotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 59: 608–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hwang P, Guyda H, Friesen H (1971) A radioimmunoassay for human prolactin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:1902–1906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ishizuka B, Quigley ME, Yen SSC (1983) Pituitary hormone release in response to food ingestion: evidence for neuroendocrine signals from gut to brain. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57:1111–1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jackson RD, Wortsman J, Malarkey WB (1985) Characterization of a large molecular weight prolactin in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and normal menses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 61: 258–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jacobs LS, Snyder PJ, Utiger RD, Daughaday WH (1973) Prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in normal subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36:1069–1073PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jeske W (1979) The effect of metoclopramide, TRH and 1-dopa on prolactin secretion in pituitary adenoma and in „functional“ galactorrhoea syndrome. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 91: 385–396Google Scholar
  39. Kaji H, Chihara K, Kita T, Kashio Y, Okimura Y, Fujita T (1985) Lack of plasma prolactin response to intravenously injected vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in patients with prolactin- secreting adenoma. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 110: 445–450Google Scholar
  40. Kauppila A, Chatelain P, Kirkinen P, Kivinen S, Ruokonen A (1987) Isolated prolactin deficiency in a woman with puerperal alactogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64: 309–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kleinberg DL, Frantz AG (1971) Human prolactin. Measurement in plasma by in vitro bioassay. J Clin Invest 50:1557–1568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kletzky OA, Davajan V, Mishell DR, Nicoloff JT, Mims R, March CM, Nakamura RM (1977) A sequential pituitary stimulation test in normal subjects and in patients with amenorrhea-galac- torrhea with pituitary tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45: 631–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kolodny RC, Jacobs LS, Daughaday WH (1972) Mammary stimulation causes prolactin secretion in non-lactating women. Nature 238: 284–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Langer G, Sachar EJ, Halpern FS, Gruen PH, Solomon M (1977) The prolactin response to neuroleptic drugs. A test of dopaminergic blockade: Neuroendocrine studies in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45: 996–1002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lankford HV, Blackard WG, Gardner DF, Tucker HStG (1981) Effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and metoclopramide in patients with phenothiazine-induced hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53:109–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leblanc H, Yen SSC (1976) The effect of L-dopa and chlorpromazine on prolactin and growth hormone secretion in normal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 126:162–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Leblanc H, Lachelin GCL, Abu-Fadil S, Yen SSC (1976) Effects of dopamine infusion on pituitary hormone secretion in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 668–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lim VS, Kathpalia SC, Frohman LA (1979) Hyperprolactinemia and impaired pituitary response to suppression and stimulation in chronic renal failure: reversal after transplantation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48:101–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maatman TJ, Montague DK (1986) Routine endocrine screening in impotence. Urology 27: 499–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Marinis L de, Mancini A, Maira G, Anile C, Menini E, Barbarino A (1984) Postoperative evaluation of dopaminergic tone in prolactinoma patients. II. Plasma thyrotropin response to metoclopramide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 58: 405–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Martin RH (1983) Metoclopramide challenge: A measure of human lactotroph activity. Obstet Gynecol 62: 691–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Martin TM, Kim M, Malarkey WB (1985) The natural history of idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60: 855–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Martinez-Campos A, Cornejo J, Garzia-Flores J, Velasco F (1985) Dysfunction of dopaminergic regulation of prolactin in patients with functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and craniopharyngiomas. Fertil Steril 44: 471–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Maslar IA, Riddick DH (1979) Prolactin production by human endometrium during the normal menstrual cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135: 751–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Matsushita H, Matsuya S, Endo Y, Hara M, Shishiba Y, Yamaguchi H, Kameya T (1984) A prolactin producing tumor originated in the sphenoid sinus. Acta Pathol Jpn 34:103–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Mills DE, Robertshaw D (1981) Response of plasma prolactin to changes in ambient temperature and humidity in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52: 279–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moshang T, Marx BS, Cara JF, Snyder PJ (1985) The prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone does not distinguish teenaged males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism from those with constitutional delay of growth and development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 61: 1211–1213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nicoll CS (1967) Bioassay of prolactin. Analysis of the pigeon crop sac response to local prolactin injection by an objective and quantitative method. Endocrinology 80: 641–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Noel GL, Suh HK, Frantz AG (1974) Prolactin release during nursing and breast stimulation in postpartum and nonpostpartum subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38: 413–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Osterman PO, Wide L (1975) The plasma prolactin levels in man during prolongation of darkness in the morning. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 78: 675–682Google Scholar
  61. Peters F, Geisthövel F, Breckwoldt M (1985) Serum prolactin levels in women with excessive milk production. Normalization by transitory prolactin inhibition. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 109: 463–466Google Scholar
  62. Pierrepoint CG, John BM, Groom GV, Wilson DW, Gow JG (1978) Prolactin and testosterone levels in the plasma of fertile and infertile men. J Endocrinol 76:171–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pontiroli AE, Gala RR, Pellicciotta G, De Pasqua A, Girardi AM, Pozza G (1979) Study on the reproducibility of human prolactin response to sulpiride, benserazide, insulin hypoglycaemia and arginine infusion. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 91: 410–420Google Scholar
  64. Poretsky L, Gaber J, Kleefleld J (1986) Primary amenorrhea and pseudoprolactinoma in a patient with primary hypothyroidsm. Reversal of clinical, biochemical, and radiologic abnormalities with levothyroxine. Am J Med 81:180–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rigg LA, Yen SSC (1977) Multiphasic prolactin secretion during parturition in human subjects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 128: 215–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Rodriguez-Puyol D, Martin-Oar JE, Cachofeiro V, Del Pino D, Lopez-Novoa JM, Hernando L (1986) Molecular heterogeneity of circulating prolactin in chronic uremic men and renal transplant recipient. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 62: 352–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Röjdmark S, Adner N, Andersson DEH, Austern J, Lamminpää K (1984) Prolactin and thyrotropin responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone and metoclopramide in men with chronic alcoholism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 59: 595–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rutlin E, Haug E, Torjesen PA (1977) Serum thyrotrophin, prolactin and growth hormone, response to TRH during oestrogen treatment. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 84: 23–35Google Scholar
  69. Schlechte JA, Sherman BM, Chapler FK, VanGilder J (1986) Long term follow-up of women with surgically treated prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 62:1296–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Seki K, Uesato T, Kato K (1982) Effects of a dopamine antagonist (metoclopramide) on the release of the adenohypophyseal hormones in amenorrhoeic patients with and without hyper- prolactinaemia. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 101:166–170Google Scholar
  71. Seki K, Kato K (1985) Increased thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in hyperprolactinemic women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 61:1138–1141, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Seki K, Uesato T, Kato K, Shima K (1984) Twenty-four hour secretory pattern of prolactin in hyperprolactinaemic patients. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 106: 433–436Google Scholar
  73. Serri O, Kuchel O, Buu NT, Somma M (1983) Differential effects of a low dose dopamine infusion on prolactin secretion in normal and hyperprolactinemic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 56: 255–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shenker Y, Lloyd RV, Wheaterbee L, Port FK, Grekin RJ, Barkan AL (1986) Ectopic prolactinoma in a patient with hyperparathyroidism and abnormal sellar radiography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 62:1065–1069PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shiu RPC, Kelly PA, Friesen HG (1973) Radioreceptor assay for prolactin and other lactogenic hormones. Science 180: 968–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Smythe GA, Compton PJ, Lazarus L (1975) The stimulation of human prolactin secretion by 3-iodo-l-tyrosine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 40: 714–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Snyder PJ, Jacobs LS, Utiger RD, Daughaday WH (1973) Thyroid hormone inhibition of the prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. J Clin Invest 52: 2324–2329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Spitz IM, Hirsch HJ, Trestian S (1983) The prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone differentiates isolated gonadotropin deficiency from delayed puberty. N Engl J Med 308: 575–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tanaka T, Shiu RPC, Gout PW, Beer CT, Noble RL, Friesen HG (1980) A new sensitive and specific bioassay for lactogenic hormones: Measurement of prolactin and growth hormone in human serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 51:1058–1063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thorner MO, Schran HF, Evans WS, Rogol AD, Morris JL, Macleod RM (1980) A broad spectrum of prolactin suppression by bromocriptine in hyperprolactinemic women: a study of serum prolactin and bromocriptine levels after acute and chronic administration of bromocriptine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50:1026–1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Turkington RW (1971a) Ectopic productin of prolactin. N Engl J Med 285:1455–1458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Turkington RW (1971 b) Measurement of prolactin activity in human serum by the induction of specific milkproteins in mammary gland in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 33: 210–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tyson JE, Friesen HG (1973) Factors influencing the secretion of human prolactin and growth hormone in menstrual and gestational women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 116: 377–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Tyson JE, Perez A, Zanartu J (1976) Human lactational response to oral thyrotropin releasing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 760–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Weitzman RE, Leake RD, Rubin RT, Fisher DA (1980) The effect of nursing on neurohypophyseal hormone and prolactin secretion in human subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 51: 836–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wiebe RH, Hammond CB, Handwerger S (1978) Prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenoma: detection and evaluation. Fertil Steril 29: 282–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Whitaker MD, Klee GG, Kao PC, Randall RV, Heser DW (1984) Demonstration of biological activity of prolactin molecular weight variants in human sera. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 58: 826–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. E. Dericks-Tan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations