Crops II pp 386-404 | Cite as

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): A Potential New Crop

  • M. Burnouf-Radosevich
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 6)

Abstract

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Fig. 1), although being a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae, is usually considered as a cereal because of its dietary use. Indeed, the seeds can be milled into flour to make breads and soups, as well as pasta. Quinoa originates from the Andean region of South America and was an important crop at the time of the Inca civilization (Weber1978). With the arrival of the Spaniards, substitutes like the Graminae were introduced and quinoa was neglected until a few decades ago. Quinoa has recently awakened the interest of scientists and agronomists as a potential “new” crop; mainly because of its high nutritive value and agronomic characteristics. In fact, recent data show that quinoa seeds contain approximately 14% proteins, a protein content as high as 20% being reported for some improved varieties. An interesting feature is the high percentage of essential amino acids which may reach 48% (Gorbitz and Luna de la Fuente 1965) while of special interest is the lysine content (6%) which is, on average, three times that of wheat kernels. In animal experiments, the overall nutritional quality of quinoa seeds was similar to that of milk casein (Mahoney et al. 1975). The leaves contain an average of 20% proteins of well-balanced amino acid composition. Also, food preparations with a protein concentrate from quinoa leaves, regardless of the weather conditions during growing, are of excellent nutritional value for human consumption (Ostrowski- Meissner et al. 1980). In addition, quinoa plants produce vitamin E and vitamins of the B complex as well as some essential minerals (de Bruin 1963). From the agronomic point of view, C. quinoa shows in its native land a good adaptation to cold temperatures and dry conditions. This makes quinoa a potentially suitable species to be introduced in semi-desert areas of the world and to be used there as a food source. Its needs for water are very low: 300 mm of water per year may be enough to support quinoa development. Seed yields average 1000 to 3000 kg/ha according to the varieties in normal growth conditions (Rea et al. 1979).

Keywords

Saponin Content Chenopodium Quinoa Chenopodium Rubrum Shoot Multiplication Medium Epicotyl Segment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Burnouf-Radosevich
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre Régional de Transfusion SanguineLaboratoire Recherche et DéveloppementLille CedexFrance

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