Potential Role for Platelet-Activating Factor and Tumor Necrosis Factor in the Immune Impairments in Shock and Trauma

  • D. Hosford
  • P. Braquet
Conference paper


Endotoxic shock, burn, and sepsis are major pathological manifestations associated with high morbidity that are refractory to classical treatments. The clinical symptoms are characterized by profound hemodynamic alterations such as systemic hypotension associated with a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, cardiac failure, pulmonary hypertension, bronchoconstriction, and lung edema (Gilbert 1960). In addition there are marked alterations in immune functions. For example, thermal injury is accompanied by energy comprising a fall in CD4+/CD8+ ratio (Braquet et al. 1984 a), reduced mitogen-induced interleukin 2 (IL 2) production, and depressed natural killer (NK) cell and lymphocyte activity (Braquet 1986). In shock states reduction in the number and function of circulating platelets and leukocytes also contributes to circulatory disorders. The increase in vascular permeability is a determinant for the prognosis and evolution of endotoxemia since it leads to hypovolemia that enhances cardiac and pulmonary failure.


Endotoxic Shock Tumor Necrosis Factor Production Tumor Necrosis Factor Release Depressed Natural Killer Synthetic Platelet Activate Factor 
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© Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Hosford
  • P. Braquet

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