On the significance of isolated exclusions in the PGM1 subtype system

  • J. Bertrams
  • W. Weber
  • P. G. Höher
Part of the Advances in Forensic Haemogenetics book series (HAEMOGENETICS, volume 2)


PGM1 subtyping by thin layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (PAGIF) has become a commonly used part of paternity testing, since the method is simple, highly reproducible and relatively cheap. According to advantageous frequencies of the four common alleles PGM1*1A or a1(0.6356), PGM1*1B or a3(0.1194), PGM1*2A or a2(0.1910), and PGM1*2B or a4(0.0525) the exclusion probability increases from about 15% with conventional PGM1 typing to over 30% with isoelectric focusing techniques (IEF). The practicability of PGM1 subtyping for paternity testing is, however, restricted not only by a relatively high frequency of silent alleles, of partially deficient alleles, and of a large number of variants, but especially by the occurrence of incompatible heterozygous mother-child pairs and isolated exclusions.


Paternity Testing Silent Allele Deficient Allele Globule Rouge Advantageous Frequency 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Bertrams
    • 1
  • W. Weber
    • 2
  • P. G. Höher
    • 3
  1. 1.Abteilung für LaboratoriumsmedizinElisabeth KrankenhausEssen 1Germany
  2. 2.Institut für BlutgruppenforschungKöln 91Germany
  3. 3.Hygienisch-Bakteriologisches InstitutKlinikum BarmenWuppertal 2Germany

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