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Polymorphisms of Immunoglobulins: Gm, Am and Km Typing

  • G. G. de Lange
  • A. M. van Leeuwen
  • P. H. van Eede
  • P. J. Lincoln
  • C. P. Engelfriet
Part of the Advances in Forensic Haemogenetics book series (HAEMOGENETICS, volume 2)

Abstract

Allotypes of immunoglobulins form the most polymorphic genetic system of human serum proteins. Allotypes have been shown on the heavy chains of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgA2 and IgE and on kappa light chains, which are coded by the γ1, γ2, γ3, α2, ε and κ genes respectively. They are called G1m, G2m, G3m, A2m, Em and Km allotypes (Table 1). Most allotypes have originated from the genes by mutation of only one or a few nucleotides resulting in the difference of one or two amino acids. Until now 24 allotypes have been described: four G1m, one G2m, thirteen G3m, two A2m, one Em and three Km allotypes (ref 1).

Keywords

Coated Cell Kappa Light Chain Human Serum Protein Reference Seron R2R2 Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    Schanfield M.D., Loghem E. van (1986) Human immunoglobulin allotypes. Handbook of Experimental Immunology, 4th edition Ed. D.M. Weir Blackwell Scientific Publication, Vol 3 Chapter 94.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Loghem E. van, Aalberse R.C., Matsumoto H. (1984) A genetic marker of human IgE heavy chains Em(1). Vox Sang 46, 195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Review of the notation for the allotypic and related markers of human immunoglobulins. WHO meeting on human immunoglobulin allotypic markers, held 16–19 July 1974, Rouen, France, report amended June 1976. J. Immunogenet. 3, 357–362 (1976).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lange G. de, Fa-Ming Z., Henke J., Feng Z., Bernhardt R., Leeuwen F. van, Eede P. van (1985) Immunoglobulin allotypes in a Chinese population: comparison of haplotype frequencies with other Asian groups. J. Immunogenet. 12, 191–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. G. de Lange
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. M. van Leeuwen
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. H. van Eede
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. J. Lincoln
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. P. Engelfriet
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Central Laboratory of the Netherlands Red Cross, Blood Transfusion Service and Laboratory for Experimental and Clinical ImmunologyUniversity of AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.London Hospital Medical CollegeUniversity of LondonUK

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