• Sabine Enenkel
  • Wolfgang Stille


Little information is available concerning the incidence and etiology of septicemia in developing countries. Incidence rates vary. Those reported from Nigeria, Jamaica, and Kuwait in three studies were 37.1, 16.1, and 10.9 cases, respectively, per 1000 hospital admissions [2, 12, 17]. A retrospective analysis of all deaths on the medical wards of the same Nigerian hospital from 1960 to 1973 attributed 1.3% of the total deaths to septicemia [1]. This is almost certainly an underestimate because conditions such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and pyomyositis, which are often associated with secondary septicemia, were classified according to the respective organ systems. The same argument applies to studies of the pattern of hospital admissions to adult medical wards, where only 0.26%–0.29% of cases were diagnosed as septicemia [7, 25].


Fusidic Acid Neisseria Meningitidis Scrub Typhus Streptococcus Viridans Neonatal Septicemia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adetuyibi A, Akisanya JB, Onadeko BO (1976) Analysis of the causes of death on the medical wards of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, over a 14-year period (1960–1973). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 70: 466–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alausa KO, Montefiore D, Sogbetun A, Ashiru I, Onile BA, Sobayo E (1977) Septicaemia in the tropics. Scand J Infect Dis 9: 181–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson KE, Joseph SW, Nasution R, Sunoto, Butler T, Van Peenen PFD, Irving GS, Saroso JS, Watten RH (1976) Febrile illnesses resulting in hospital admission: a bacteriological and serological study in Jakarta, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25: 116–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berkowitz FE (1981) Pneumococcal bacteraemia - a study of 75 black children. Ann Trop Paediatr 1: 229–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berkowitz FE (1984) Bacteremia in hospitalized black south African children. Am J Dis Child 138: 551–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bhakoo ON, Agarwal KC, Narang A, Bhattachaijee S (1974) Prognosis and treatment of neo¬natal septicaemia - a clinicobacteriological study of 100 cases. Indian Pediatr 11: 519–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown KGB (1975) Analysis of admissions to the adult medical wards at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. East Afr Med J 52: 509–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bwibo NO (1971) The role of neonatal infection in neonatal and childhood mortality. J Trop Pediatr 19: 89–90Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Charlton RW (1979) Observations on blood cultures. A10 year survey of specimens from Afri-can patients. Cent Afr J Med 25: 221–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dawodu AH, Alausa OK (1980) Neonatal septicaemia in the tropics. Afr J Med Sei 9: 1–6Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duncan ME, Perine PL, Krause DW, Awoke S, Zaidi AA (1980) Pelvic inflammatory disease and puerperal sepsis in Ethiopia. II. Treatment Am J Obstet Gynecol 138: 1059–1063Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elhag KM, Mustafa AK, Sethi SK (1985) Septicaemia in a teaching hospital in Kuwait. I: Incidence and aetiology. J Infect Dis 10: 17–24Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Freedman RM, Ingram DL, Gross I, Ehrenkranz RA, Warshaw JB, Baltimore RS (1981) A half century of neonatal sepsis at Yale, 1928-1978. Am J Dis Child 135: 140–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gedebou M, Tassew A, Azene G (1984) Blood culture isolates from an Addis Abeba Hospital, frequency and antibiotic sensitivities. East Afr Med J 61: 190–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gratten M (1981) The laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic infections caused by uncommon bacteria in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Med J 24: 169–173Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koopman JS, Fighetti de Olave A (1980) An extensive outbreak of klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremias from in-use contamination of i.v. bottles. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 14: 185–192Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Macfarlane DE, Narla VR (1985) Bacteraemia at the university hospital of the West Indies - a report of 222 cases. J Infect 10: 126–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McGowan JE, Barnes MW, Finland M (1975) Bacteremia at Boston City Hospital: occurrence and mortality during 12 selected years (1935–1972), with special reference to hospital-acquired cases. J Infect Dis 132: 316–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mukonyora M, Mabiza E, Gould IM (1985) Staphylococcal bacteraemia in Zimbabwe 1983. J Infect 10: 233–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nazer H (1981) Neonatal septicaemia at the Jordan University Hospital. J Trop Pediatr 27: 199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Omene JA (1979) Neonatal septicaemia in Benin City. A review of 74 cases. Trop Geogr Med 31: 35–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Onile BA (1980) Group B streptococcal carriage in Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 74: 367–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Onile BA, Osinusi BO, Montefiore D, Sogbetun AO (1980) Neonatal septicaemia resulting from group B streptococci: a case report. Int J Obstet Gynecol 17: 393–395Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Onyemelukwe GC, Lawande RV, Egler LJ, Mohammed I (1983) Listeria monocytogenes in Northern Nigeria. J Infect 6: 141–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Patel KM, Lwanga SK (1971) A study of medical admissions to Mulago hospital, Kampala. East Afr Med J 48: 76–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Perine PL, Duncan ME, Krause DW, Awoke S (1980) Pelvic inflammatory disease and puer-peral sepsis in Ethiopia. I. Etiology. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138: 969–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    El Rifai MR (1982) A study of 214 neonates with infectino in the maternity and children’s hospital of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ann Trop Pediatr 2: 119–122Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shah PM, Schäfer V, Bruns F, Stille W, Knothe H (1984) Erregerspektrum von Septikämien. In: Wilms K, Stille W (eds) Infektionen bei Abwehrschwäche. FAC, Fortschritte der Antimik- robiellen-Antineoplastischen Chemotherapie, vol 3–6. Futuramed, München, pp 901–906Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sharma KB, Prakash K, Ravindran PC, Narang P (1975) Neonatal septicemia due to group B- beta hemolytic streptococci. Indian J Med Res 63: 781–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Srinivasa DK, Danabalan M, Anand D (1974) Infant mortality trends in a rural health centre of Pondicherry. J Indian Med Assoc 62: 39–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stille W (1972) Septikämie - Problematik, Klinik und Therapie. Rheindruck, BoppardGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Winfred I (1984) The incidence of neonatal infections in the nursery unit at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. East Afr Med J 61: 197–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yánez MZ, Zamorano MG, Diaz CQ, Guerra PA (1981) Analisis bacteriana en el neonato en los últimos cinco anos en el Servicio de Pediatría del Hospital Regional Leonardo Guzmán, de Antofagasta. Rev Chil Pediatr 53: 213–217Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabine Enenkel
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Stille
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity Hospital, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-UniversitätFrankfurt/Main 70Germany
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe-UniversitätFrankfurt/Main 70Germany

Personalised recommendations