Community Grazing In Heterotrophic Marine Protista — Session Summary

  • Gerard M. Capriulo
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 25)


Various estimates suggest that the earth is populated by perhaps 107 species, with in the order of 1040 simple (i.e. first order) interactions between them (Wilson 1988, May 1988). Faced with such complexity, ecologists (numbering perhaps in the 104 range, worldwide) can have little hope of identifying and describing more than a small percentage of those interactions. Such research is fuelled by at least two forces including: 1. artistic fascination and the intrinsic excitement associated with discovery and 2. the desire and necessity, to understand how ecosystems function. The latter seeks to understand ecosystems to the point where we can predict, through mathematical models, how a system will behave in the future. Models, of necessity, are based on simplifications of reality, with emphasis on unifying themes rather than individual differences.


Bacterial Production Grazing Rate Digestion Time Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Community Grazing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Burkill PH, Mantoura RFC, Llewellyn CA, Owens NJP (1987) Microzooplankton grazing and selectivity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. Mar Biol 93:581–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Capriulo GM (1982) Feeding of field-collected tintinnid microzooplankton on natural food. Mar Biol 71:73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Capriulo GM (1990). Feeding Related Ecology of Marine Protozoa. In: Capriulo GM (ed) The Ecology of Marine Protozoa, Oxford University Press, New York, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Capriulo GM, Sherr EB, Sherr BF (1990) Trophic behaviour and related community feeding activities of heterotrophic marine protists. In: Reid PC, Turley CM, Burkill PH (eds) Protozoa and their role in marine processes. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Ducklow H, Hill SM (1985) The growth of heterotrophic bacteria in the surface waters of warm core rings. Limnol Oceanogr 30:239–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dussart BM (1965) Les differentes categories de plancton. Hydrobiologia 26:72–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frost BW (1972) Effects of size and concentration of food particles on the feeding behavior of the marine planktonic copepod Calanus pacificus. Limnol Oceanogr 17:805–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fuhrman JA, McManus GB (1984) Do bacteria-sized marine eukaryotes consume significant bacterial production? Science 224:1257–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fuhrman JA, Azam F (1982) Thymidine incorporation as a measure of heterotrophic bacterioplankton production in marine surface waters: evaluation and field results. Mar Biol 66:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gifford DJ (1985) Laboratory culture of marine planktonic oligotrichs (Ciliophora), Oligotrichida ). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 23:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jonsson PR (1986) Particle size selection, feeding rates and growth dynamics of marine planktonic oligotrichous ciliates (Ciliophora: Oligotrichina). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 33:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Landry MR, Hassett RP (1982) Estimating the grazing impact of marine micro-zooplankton. Mar Biol 67:283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Laybourn-Parry J, Jones K, Holdich JP (1987) Grazing by Mayorella sp. (Protozoa; Sarcodina) on cyanobacteria. Functional Ecol 1:99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lessard EJ, Swift E (1985) Species-specific grazing rates of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in oceanic waters, measured with a dual-label radioisotope technique. Mar Biol 87:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Linley EAS, Newell RC, Lucus MI (1983) Quantitative relationships between phytoplankton, bacteria and heterotrophic microflagellates in shelf waters. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 12:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. May RM (1988) How many species are there on earth? Science 241:1441–1449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McManus GB, Furhman JA (1988) Control of marine bacterioplankton populations: Measurement and significance of grazing. Hydrobiologia 159:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pace ML (1988) Bacterial mortality and the fate of acterial production. Hydrobiologia 159:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Paranjape M (1987) Grazing by microzooplankton in the eastern Canadian arctic in summer, 1983. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 40:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pomeroy LR (1974) The ocean’s food web, a changing paradigm. Bioscience 24:499–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Porter KG, Sherr EB, Sherr BF, Pace M, Sanders RW (1985) Protozoa in planktonic food webs. J Protozool 32:409–415Google Scholar
  22. Rassoulzadegan F, Laval-Peuto M, Sheldon RW (1988) Partitioning of the food ration of marine ciliates between pico and nanoplankton. Hydrobiologia 159:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Servais P, Billen G, Rego JV (1985) Rate of bacterial mortality in aquatic environments. Appl Environ Microbiol 49:1448–1454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sieburth J McN, Semtacek V, Lenz J (1978) Pelagic ecosystem structure: heterotrophic compartments of the plankton and their relationship to plankton size fractions. Limnol Oceanogr 23:1256–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sieburth J McN (1984) Protozoan bacterivory in pelagic marine waters. In: Hobbie JE, Williams PJ leB (eds) Heterotrophic activity in the sea. Plenum Press, New York, p 405Google Scholar
  26. Sieracki ME, Haas LW, Caron DA, Lessard EJ (1987) The effects of fixation on particle retention by microflagellates: underestimation of grazing rates. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 38:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sherr BF, Sherr EB, Andrew TA, Fallon RD, Newell SY (1986a) Trophic interactions between heterotrophic protozoa and bacterioplankton in estuarine water analysed with selective metabolic inhibitors. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 32:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sherr EB, Sherr BF, Fallon RD, Newell SY (1986b) Small aloricate ciliates as a major component of the marine heterotrophic nanoplankton. Limnol Oceanogr 31:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sherr EB, Sherr BF, Paffenhofer G-A (1986c) Phagotrophic protozoa as food for metazoans: a “missing” trophic link in marine pelagic food webs? Mar Microb Food Webs 1:61–80Google Scholar
  30. Sherr BF, Sherr EB (1984) Role of heterotrophic protozoa in carbon and energy flow in aquatic ecosystems. In: Klug M, Reddy CA (eds) Current Perspectives in Microbiol Ecology. Amer Soc Microbiol (Washington DC)Google Scholar
  31. Stoecker DK, Sanders NK (1985) Differential grazing by Acartia tonsa on a dinoflagellate and a tintinnid. J Plankton Res 7:85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Taylor GT, Pace ML (1987) Validity of eukaryotic inhibitors for assessing production and grazing mortality of marine bacterioplankton. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:119–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wikner J, Anderson A, Normark S, Hagstrom A (1986) Use of genetically marked minicells as a probe in measurement of predation on bacteria in aquatic environments. Appl Environ Microbiol 52:4–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilson EO (1988) The Current state of biological diversity. In: Wilson EO (ed) Biodiversity, p 521Google Scholar
  35. Wright RT, Coffin RB (1984) Measuring microzooplankton grazing on planktonic marine bacteria by its impact on bacterial production. Microb Ecol 10:137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerard M. Capriulo
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Natural SciencesState University of New YorkPurchaseUSA

Personalised recommendations