Central Noradrenergic and Serotonergic Mechanisms in Temperature Regulation and Adaptation

  • K. Brück


Stability of body temperature results from the actions of several effector systems integrated in a feedback control system. Notably, the immediate control of the effector systems is neuronal not hormonal (Fig. 1); blood-borne hormones may, however, modulate the actions of the thermoregulatory system. All controlling efferent nervous pathways originate in the hypothalamus, which is thought to represent the central regulator or integration centre of the temperature control system (Brück and Zeisberger 1987; Simon et al. 1986).


Skin Temperature Brown Adipose Tissue Cold Exposure Preoptic Area Posterior Hypothalamus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Behr R, Zeisberger E, Merker G (1983) Response of the guinea-pig (Cavia aperea porcellus) to external cooling after aminergic denervation of the anterior hypothalamus. J Therm Biol 8: 125–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boulant JA, Dean JB (1986) Temperature receptors in the central nervous system. Ann Rev Physiol 48: 639–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brück K (1978) Heat production and temperature regulation. In: Stave U (ed) Perinatal Physiology. Plenum, New York, pp 455–498Google Scholar
  4. Brück K (1986) Basic mechanisms in thermal long-term and short-term adaptation. J Therm Biol 11: 73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brück K, Hinckel P (1980) Thermoregulatory noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways to hypothalamic units. J Physiol 304: 193–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brück K, Hinckel P (1982) Thermoafferent systems and their adaptive modifications. Pharmacol Ther 17: 357–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brück K, Hinckel P (1984) Thermal afférents to the hypothalamus and thermal adaptation. J Therm Biol 9: 7–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brück K, Zeisberger E (1987) Adaptive changes in thermoregulation. Pharmacol Ther 35: 163–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hessemer V, Brück K (1985) Influence of menstrual cycle on shivering, skin blood flow, and sweating responses measured at night. J Appl Physiol 59: 1902–1910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hinckel P, Distante L, Brück K (1983) Inhibitory effects of the lower brain stem on shivering. J Therm Biol 8: 129–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hinckel P, Perschel WT (1987) Influence of cold and warm acclimation on neuronal responses in the lower brain stem. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 65: 1281–1289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hull D, Vinter J (1986) The preferred environmental temperature of newborn rabbits. Biol Neonate 50: 323–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ishikawa Y, Hinckel P (1985) The role of serotonin and noradrenaline in thermoafferent pathways to the hypothalamus. Pflügers Arch 405 [Suppl] (2): R 70Google Scholar
  14. Jessen C (1985) Thermal afferents in the control of body temperature. Pharmacol Ther 28: 107–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Perkins MN, Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ, Stone TW (1981) Activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis by the ventromedial hypothalamus. Nature 289: 401–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Roth J, Schwandt HJ, Zeisberger E (1986) Amounts of catecholamines excreted in guinea-pigs during long-term acclimation to 5°C and 28°C. Pflügers Arch 406 [Suppl]: R 22Google Scholar
  17. Simon E (1974) Temperature regulation: the spinal cord as a site of extrahypothalamic thermoregulatory functions. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 71: 1–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Simon E, Pierau FK, Taylor DCM (1986) Central and peripheral thermal control of effectors in homeothermic temperature regulation. Physiol Rev 66: 235–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Szelényi Z, Zeisberger E, Brück K (1977) A hypothalamic alpha-adrenergic mechanism mediating the thermogenic response to electrical stimulation of the lower brainstem in the guinea pig. Pflügers Arch 370: 19–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wünnenberg W, Hardy JD (1972) Response of single units of the posterior hypothalamus to thermal stimulation. J Appl Physiol 33: 547–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Zeisberger E (1982) The role of noradrenergic systems in thermal adaptation. In: Hildebrandt G, Hensel H (eds) Biological adaptation. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 140–147Google Scholar
  22. Zeisberger E (1985) Role of vasopressin in fever regulation and suppression. Trends Pharmacol Sci 6: 428–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Brück
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyJustus Liebig UniversityGiessenGermany

Personalised recommendations