Phosphodiesterase inhibition and positive inotropy in failing human myocardium
Positive inotropic effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors like 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX), pimobendan, adibendan, milrinone, saterinone, and enoximone are greatly diminished in isolated heart muscle preparations from human failing myocardium as compared to nonfailing myocardium. This is accompanied by a reduced increase in cAMP content in intact isometrically contracting human trabeculae. With anion exchange chromatography four peaks of phosphodiesterase activities (PDE I–IV) could be separated from both nonfailing and failing human myocardium. Substrate specificity, Km, and Vmax were similar in nonfailing and failing myocardium. Furthermore, the PDE inhibitors investigated exhibited similar IC50-values in both tissues, indicating that the sensitivity of the enzymes from nonfailing and failing tissue was unchanged. Thus, changes in PDE are probably not responsible for the reduced positive inotropic and cAMP-increasing effects of PDE inhibitors in human failing heart muscle preparations. Instead, an increase in signal transducing inhibitory G-proteins may keep the adenylyl cyclase at reduced activity, resulting in an attenuated formation of cAMP, even in the presence of PDE inhibitors.
Key wordsPhosphodiesterase inhibitors heart failure human myocardium cAMP
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