Residual stones after percutaneous litholapaxy
Percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PCNL) can be used independently or in combination with extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The major complication of PCNL is the possibility of leaving rest stones in the renal cavity or in the surrounding tissues. Especially frequent rest stones are found after surgery by less trained surgeons (1–3, 5–6). The term ‘rest stone’ means a smaller or larger calculus remaining after PCNL, for different reasons. Sometimes it is not convenient to reach calyceal stones or fragments by the rigid nephroscope (4).
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.