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Mineral Nutrition: Sources of Nutrients for Land Plants from Outside the Pedosphere

  • David T. Clarkson
  • Pieter J. C. Kuiper
  • Ulrich Lüttge
Part of the Progress in Botany/Fortschritte der Botanik book series (BOTANY, volume 48)

Abstract

From the beginning of the colonization of the land surface by plants, rain must have been a source of nutrients. There are global cycles in both the water and salts of the oceans; it takes a period of about 80 million years to transport the ocean salt, by means of sprays and aerosols, over the edges of the continents (HOLMES 1937) and 5000 years to transport the ocean water. In addition to the ocean, chemical transformations of nitrogen in the atmosphere and geological upheavals such as volcanoes can provide a wide variety of plant nutrients in gaseous, dissolved, and particulate forms. The rates at which these nutrients are deposited on the land surface are highly variable and depend on climate and prevailing wind direction. At most, however, they can support only very slow rates of plant growth. Plant communities, such as raised Sphagnum bogs, which are almost totally dependent on the atmosphere for their nutrients, have intrinsically low rates of biomass production (PEARSALL and GOREHAM 1956; PAKARINEN 1978).

Keywords

Mineral Nutrition Plant Cell Environ Salt Spray Insect Feeding Adaxial Leaf Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • David T. Clarkson
    • 1
  • Pieter J. C. Kuiper
    • 2
  • Ulrich Lüttge
    • 3
  1. 1.Longashton Research StationLong Ashton GB-BristolEngland UK
  2. 2.Biologisch Centrum Lab. voor PlantenfysiologieRijksuniversiteit GroningenHaren (gr.)The Netherlands
  3. 3.Institut für Botanik der Technischen Hochschule DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

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