Advertisement

General and Molecular Cytology: The Cytoskeleton: Microtubules

  • Udo Kristen
Part of the Progress in Botany/Fortschritte der Botanik book series (BOTANY, volume 48)

Abstract

The word cytoskeleton is the most commonly used term indicating microtubules (MT), microfilaments and 10-nm filaments in a structural and functional system. Because we have learned that these self-assembly structures also work as elements of intracellular transport and cell movement, this term has become rather inaccurate. Considering these functions, DE DUVE (1984) used the terms cytobones and cytomuscles, both of which much better characterize the tasks which MT and microfilaments are known to fulfill in animal, fungal, and plant cells. However, the functional diversity of these structures makes it impossible to designate them by the use of one or two words only. Therefore, cytoskeleton will be further used in this article, but only as a working expression.

Keywords

Cell Biol Green Alga Basal Body Mitotic Spindle Central Pair 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ADAMS, G.M., HUANG, B., PIPERNO, G., LUCK, D.J.L.: J. Cell Biol. 91, 69 – 76 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. ALLEN, R.D., WEISS, D.G., HAYDEN, J.H., BROWN, D.T., FUJIWAKE, H., SIMPSON, M.: J. Cell Biol. 100, 1736 – 1752 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. AMOS, L.A.: Tubulin and associated proteins, 207–250. In: Electron Microscopy of Proteins, Vol. 3, ed. J.R. HARRIS. London: Academic Press 1982Google Scholar
  4. ANDERSEN, R.A.: Protoplasma 128, 94 – 106 (1985)Google Scholar
  5. ANDREU, J.M., TIMASHEFF, S.N.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 6753 – 6756 (1982)Google Scholar
  6. ANDREU, J.M., WAGENKNECHT, T., TIMASHEFF, S.N.: Biochemistry 22, 1556 – 1566 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. ANTIN, P.B., FORRY–SHAUDIES, S., FRIEDMAN, T.M., TAPSCOTT, S.J., HOLTZER, H.: J. Cell Biol. 90, 300 – 308 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. APOSTOLAKOS, P., GALATIS, B.: Can. J. Bot. 63, 744–756 (1985a); – Protoplasma 128, 120– 135 (1985b)Google Scholar
  9. AVIOLO, J., LEBDUSKA, S., SATIR, P.: J. Mol. Biol. 173, 389 – 401 (1984).Google Scholar
  10. BAJER, A.S., MOLÊ-BAJER, J.: J. Cell Biol. 102, 263 – 281 (1986)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. BAKHUIZEN, R., Van SPONSEN, P.C., SLUIMAN–DEN HERTOG, F.A.J., VENVER– L00, G.J., GOOSEN–DE R00, L.: Protoplasma 128, 43 – 51 (1985)Google Scholar
  12. BAYLEY, P.M., MANSER, E.J.: Nature 318, 683 – 685 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. BELL, C.W.: J. Sub– microsc. Cytol. 15, 201 – 202 (1983)Google Scholar
  14. BELL, C.W., GIBBONS, I.R.: J. Biol. Chem. 257, 516 – 522 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. BELL, C.W., FRANK, E., GIBBONS, I.R. J. Supramol. Struct. 11, 311 – 317 (1979)Google Scholar
  16. BERGEN, L.G., BORISY, G.G.: J. Cell Biol. 84, 141–150 (1980); – J. Biol. Chem. 258, 4190 – 4194 (1983)Google Scholar
  17. BLACKMORE, S., BARNES, S.H., CLAUGHER, D.: J. Ultrastruct. Res. 86, 215 – 219 (1984)Google Scholar
  18. BORDAS, J., MANDELKOW, E.-M., MANDELKOW, E.: J. Mol. Biol. 164, 89 – 135 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. BOURGUIGNON, L.Y.W., BOURGUIGNON, G.J.: Int. Rev. Cytol. 87, 195 – 224 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. BRADY, S.T., LASEK, R.J., ALLEN, R.D.: Cell Motil. 5, 81 – 101 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. BROWN, R.C., LEMMON, B.E.: Protoplasma 123, 95 – 103 (1984)Google Scholar
  22. BRUNKE, K. J., YOUNG, E.E., BUCHBIN– DER, B.U., WEEKS, D.P.: Nucleic Acids Res. 71, 749 – 767 (1982)Google Scholar
  23. BURLAND, T.G., GULL, K., SCHEDL, T., BOSTON, R.S., DOVE, W.F.: J. Cell Biol. 97, 1852 – 1859 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. BURLAND, T.G., SCHEDL, T., GULL, K., DOVE, W.F.: Genetics 108, 123 – 141 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. BURNS, R.G., ISLAM, K.: FEBS Lett. 173, 67 – 76 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. BURTON, P.R., PAIGE, J.L.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 3269 – 3273 (1981)Google Scholar
  27. BUSBY, C.H., GUNNING, B.E.S.: Protoplasma 116, 78–85 (1983); – ibid. 122, 108 – 1 19 (1984).Google Scholar
  28. CANDE, W.Z., MCDONALD, K.L.S Nature 316, 168 – 170 (1985)Google Scholar
  29. CAPLOW, M., REID, R.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 3267 – 3271 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. CARLIER, M.F.: Molec. Cell. Biochem. 47, 97 – 113 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. CARLIER, M.F., SIMON, C., PANTALONI, D.: Biochemistry 23, 1582 – 1590 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. CLEVELAND, D. W., LOPATA, M.A., MCDONALD, R.J., COWAN, N.J., RUTTER, W.J., KIRSCHNER, M.: Cell 20, 95 – 105 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. CZABAN, B.B., FORER, A.: J. Cell Sci. 79, 1–37 (1 985a); – ibid. 79, 39 – 65 (1985b).Google Scholar
  34. DEBEC, A., SZOLLOSI, A., SZOLLOSI, D.: Biol. Cell. 44, 133 – 138 (1982).Google Scholar
  35. DE BRABANDER, M., GEUENS, G., NUYDENS, R., WILLEBRORDS, R., DE MEY, J.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5608 – 5612 (1981)Google Scholar
  36. DE BRABANDER, M., GEUENS, G., NUYDENS, R., WILLEBRORDS, R., AERTS, F., DE MEY, J., McINTOSH, J.R.: Int. Rev. Cytol. 101, 215 – 274 (1986)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. DE DUVE, C.: A Guidet Tour of the Living Cell. New York: Scientific American Books 1984Google Scholar
  38. DE MEY, J., MOEREMANS, M., GEUENS, G., NUYDENS, R., VAN BELLE, H., DE BRABANDER, M.: Immunocytochemical evidence for the association of calmodulin with microtubules of the mitotic apparatus, 227–242. In: Microtubules and Microtubule Inhibitors, eds. M. DE BRABANDER, J. DE MEY. Amsterdam: Elsevier, North–Holland 1980Google Scholar
  39. DE MEY, J., MOEREMANS, M., GEUENS, G., NUYDENS, R., DE BRABANDER, M.: Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 5, 889 – 900 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. DE MEY, J., LAMBERT, A.M., BAJER, A.S., MOEREMANS, M., DE BRABANDER, M.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 1898 – 1902 (1982).Google Scholar
  41. DENTLER, W.L.: J. Cell Sei 42, 207–220 (1980); – Int. Rev. Cytol. 72, 1 – 48 (1981)Google Scholar
  42. DENTLER, W.L., LeCLUYSE, E.L.: Cell Motil. 2, 549– 572 (1982)Google Scholar
  43. DERKSEN, J., PIERSON, E.S., TRAAS, J.A.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 38, 142 – 148 (1985)Google Scholar
  44. DOONAN, J.H., COVE, D.J., LLOYD, C.W.: J. Cell Sci. 75, 131 – 147 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. DUSTIN, P.: Microtubules. Berlin– Heidelberg–New York–Tokyo: Springer 1984Google Scholar
  46. DUTCHER, K., HUANG, B., LUCK, D.J.L.: J. Cell Biol. 98, 229 – 236 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. ELEFTHERIOU, E.P.: J. Cell Sci. 75, 165–179 (1985a); – Planta 163, 175 –182 (1985b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. ELEFTHERIOU, E.P., TSEKOS, I.: Protoplasma 113, 110– 119 (1982)Google Scholar
  49. EON–GERHARDT, R., TOLLON, Y., CHRAIBI, R., WRIGHT, M.: Cytobios 32, 47 – 62 (1981)Google Scholar
  50. EUTENEUER, U., JACKSON, W.T., McINTOSH, J.R.: J. Cell Biol. 94, 644 – 653 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. FALCONER, M.M., SEAGULL, R.W.: Protoplasma 128, 157 – 166 (1985)Google Scholar
  52. FARRELL, K.W.: Isolation of tubulin from non neuronal sources, 385–392. In: Methods in Cell Biology, Vol. 25, The Cytoskeleton, Part B. Struc–tural and Contractile Proteins, ed. L. WILSON. New York, London: Aca–demic Press 1982Google Scholar
  53. FAULSTICH, H., STOURNARAS, C., DOENGES, K.H., ZIM–MERMANN, H.–P.: FEBS Lett. 174, 128 – 131 (1984)Google Scholar
  54. FAULSTICH, H., STOUR–NARAS, C., ZIMMERMANN, H.–P., WEBER, G.: Interaction of triethyllead with tubulin as a possible mechanism of plant damages, 64. The Cyto–skeleton in Development and Pathogenesis (3rd Meeting of the European Cytoskeletal Club). Bielefeld: Uni–Druck 1985Google Scholar
  55. FORER, A., JACKSON, W.T.: J. cell Sci. 37, 323 – 348 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. FORER, A., JACKSON, W.T., ENGBERG, A.: J. Cell Sci. 37, 349 – 372 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. FUJIWARA, K., LINCK, R.W.: Methods Cell Biol. 24, 217 – 233 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. GALATIS, B.: J. Cell Sci. 45, 211–244 (1980); – Can. J. Bot. 60, 1148– 1 1 66 (1982)Google Scholar
  59. GALATIS, B., MITRAKOS, K.: J. Cell Sci. 37, 11–37 (1979) Am. J. Bot. 67, 1243 – 1261 (1980)Google Scholar
  60. GALATIS, B., APOSTOLAKOS, P., KATSAROS, Chr.: Protoplasma 115, 176–192 (1983a); – ibid. 117, 24–39 (1983b); – ibid. V22, 11–26 (1984a); – Can. J. Bot. 62, 343 – 359 (1984b)Google Scholar
  61. GEIGER, B.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 737, 305 – 341 (1983)Google Scholar
  62. GIBBONS, I. R.: J. Cell Biol. 91, 107s – 124s (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. GOODENOUGH, U.W., HEUSER, J.E.: Cell 41, 341 – 342 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. GORDON, R.E.: Cell Motil. 2, 385 – 392 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. GUNNING, B.E.S.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 23, 53–65 (1980); – Microtubules and cytomorphogenesis in a developing organ: the root primordium of Azolla pinnata, 301–325. In: Cytomorphogenesis in Plants ed. 0. KIERMAYER (Cell Biol. Monographs, Vol. 8). Wien, New York: Springer 1981; – The cytokinetic apparatus: its development and spatial regulation, 229–292. In: The Cytoskeleton in Plant Growth and Development, ed. C.W. LLOYD. London, New York: Academic Press 1982Google Scholar
  66. GUNNING, B.E.S., HARDHAM, A. R.: Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol 33, 651 – 698 (1982).Google Scholar
  67. HATA, H., YANO, Y., MOHRI, T., MOHRI, H., MIKI–NOUMURA, T.: J. Cell Sci. 41, 331 – 340 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. HAWES, C.R.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 38, 201– 210 (1985)Google Scholar
  69. HAYDEN, J.H., ALLEN, R.D.: J. Cell Biol. 99, 1785 – 1793 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. HAYDEN, J.H., GOLDMAN, R.D., ALLEN, R.D.: Cell Motil. 3, 1– 19 (1983)Google Scholar
  71. HAYS, T.S., WISE, D., SALMON, E.D.: J. Cell Biol. 93, 374 – 382 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. HEATH, I.B., RETHORET, K.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 28, 180 – 189 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. HEATH, I.B., RETHORET, K., MOENS, P.B.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 35, 284 – 295 (1984)Google Scholar
  74. HENSEL, W.: Planta 162, 404 – 414 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. HEPLER, P.K.: J. Cell Biol. 86, 490–499 (1980); – Morphogenesis of tra chery elements and guard cells, 327–347. In: Cytomorphogenesis in Plants, ed. 0. KIERMAYER (Cell Biol. Monographs, Vol. 8 ). Wien, New York: Springer 1981Google Scholar
  76. HERR, F.B., HEATH, M.C.: Exp. Mycology 6, 15– 24 (1982)Google Scholar
  77. HESS, F.D.: Exp. Cell Res. 119, 99 – 110 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. HILL, T.L., KIRSCHNER, M.W.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 490 – 494 (1982).Google Scholar
  79. HIROKAWA, N., BLOOM, G.S., VALLEE, R.B.: J. Cell Biol. 101, 227 – 239 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. HOGETSU, T., OSHIMA, Y.: Planta 166, 169 – 175 (1985)Google Scholar
  81. HOOPS H.J., WITMAN, G.B.: J. Cell Biol. 97, 902 – 908 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. HUANG, B.P.–H. Int. Rev. Cytol. 99, 181 – 215 (1986)Google Scholar
  83. HYAMS, J.S.: Microtubules, 31– 53. In: The Cytoskeleton in Plant Growth and Development, ed. C.W. LLOYD. London, New York: Academic Press 1982; – J. Cell Sci. 73, 292– 310 (1985).Google Scholar
  84. INOUE, S.J.: J. Cell Biol. 91, 131s – 147s (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. INOUYE, I., PIENAAR R.N.: Br. Phycol. J. 19, 357 – 369 (1984).Google Scholar
  86. JENSEN, C.G.: J. Cell Biol. 92, 540 – 558 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. JOHNSON, K.A.: Annu. Rev. Biophys. Chem. 14 161–188 (1 985)Google Scholar
  88. JORDAN, M.A., MARGOLIS, R.L. HIMES, R.H., WILSON, L.: J. Mol. Biol. 187, 61 – 73 (1986)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. KAMIYA, R., OKAMOTO, M.: J. Cell Sci. 74, 181 – 1 91 (1985)Google Scholar
  90. KEATES, R. A.B., MASON, G.B.: Can. J. Biochem. 59, 361 – 370 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. KELLER, T.C. S., JEMIOLO, D.K., BURGESS, W.H., REBHUN, L.I.: J. Cell Biol. 93, 797– 803 (1982)Google Scholar
  92. KILMARTIN, J.V.: Biochemistry 20, 3629 – 3633 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. KIM, H., BINDER, L.I., ROSENBAUM, J.L.: J. Cell Biol. 80, 266 – 276 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. KING, S.M., HYAMS, J.S.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 29, 121 – 125 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. KING, S.M., HYAMS, J.S., LUBA, A.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 28, 98 – 102 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. KIRSCHNER, M.W.: Int. Rev. Cytol. 54, 1 – 71 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. KRAMMER, G., SINGHOFER–WOWRA, M., SEEDORF, K., LITTLE, M., SCHEDL, T.: J. Mol. Biol. 183, 633 – 638 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. KRAUHS, E., LITTLE, M., KEMPF, T. HOFER-WARBINEK, R., ADE, W., POSTINGL, H.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 4156 – 4160 (1981)Google Scholar
  99. KRAVIT, N.G., REGULA, C.S., BERLIN, R.D.: J. Cell Biol. 99, 188 – 198 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. KRONENBUSCH, P.J., BORISY, G.G.: Mechanics of anaphase B movement, 233–245. In: Biological Functions of Microtubules and Related Structures, eds. H. SAKAI, H. MOHRI, G.G. BORISY. Tokyo: Academic Press 1982Google Scholar
  101. KUBIAK, J., DE BRABANDER, M., DE MEY, J., TARKOWSKA, J.A.: Protoplasma 130, 51 – 56 (1986).Google Scholar
  102. LACHNEY, C.L., LONERGAN, T.A.: J. Cell Sci. 74, 219 – 237 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. LAMBERT, A.-M.: Chromosoma 76, 295 – 308 (1980)Google Scholar
  104. LANG, J.M., EISINGER, W.R., GREEN, P.B.: Protoplasma JJO, 5 – 14 (1982)Google Scholar
  105. LEFEBVRE, P.A., SILFLOW, C.D., WIEBEN, E.D., ROSENBAUM, J.L.: Cell 20, 469 – 477 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. LESLIE, R.J., PICKETT–HEAPS, D.H. : J. Cell Biol. 96, 548 – 561 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. L’HERNAULT, S.W., ROSENBAUM, J.L.: J. Cell Biol. 97, 258–263 (1983); ibid. 100, 457 – 462 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. LINCK, R.W., LANGEVIN, G.L.: J. Cell Sci. 58, 1 – 22 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. LINCK, R.W., OLSON, G.E., LANGEVIN, G.L.: J. Cell Biol. 89, 309 – 322 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. LINCK, R.W., ALBERTINI, D.F., KENNEY, D.M., LANGEVIN, G.L.: Cell Motil. (Suppl.). 1, 127 – 132 (1982)Google Scholar
  111. LITTLE, M., LUDUENA, R.F., LANGFORD, G.M., ASNES, C.F., FARRELL, K.: J. Mol. Biol. 149, 95 – 107 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. LLOYD, C.W.: The Cytoskeleton in Plant Growth and Development. London: Academic Press 1982a; – Nature 297, 359–360 (1982b); – ibid. 305, 311 – 313 (1983)Google Scholar
  113. LLOYD, C.W., BARLOW, P.W.: The co–ordination of cell division and elongation: The role of the cytoskeleton, 203–228. In: The Cytoskeleton in Plant Growth and Development, ed. C.W. LLOYD, London: Academic Press 1982Google Scholar
  114. LLOYD, C. W., SEAGULL, R.W.: TIBS 10, 476 – 478 (1985)Google Scholar
  115. LLOYD, C.W., WELLS, B.: J. Cell Sci. 75, 225 – 238 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. LLOYD, C.W., SLABAS, A.R., POWELL, A.J., LOWE, S.B.: Planta 147, 500 – 506 (1980)Google Scholar
  117. LONERGAN, T.A.: Plant Physiol. 71, 719 – 730 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. LUCK, D.J.L.: J. Cell Biol. 98, 789 – 794 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. LUCK, D.J.L., HUANG, B., PIPERNO, G.: Symp. Soc. exp. Biol. 35, 399 – 419. (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. MANDELKOW, E., MANDELKOW, E.-M.: J. Mol. Biol. 167, 179 – 196 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. MANDELKOW, E., THOMAS, J., COHEN, C.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 3370 – 3374 (1977)Google Scholar
  122. MANDELKOW, E., SCHULTHEISS, R., MANDELKOW, E.-M.: J. Mol. Biol. 177, 507 – 529 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. MANDELKOW, E.-M., SCHULTHEISS, R., RAPP, R., MÜLLER, M., MANDELKOW, E.: J. Cell Biol. 102, 1067 – 1073 (1986)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. MANFREDI, J.J., PARNESS, J., HORWITZ, S.B.: J. Cell, Biol. 94, 688 – 696 (1982)Google Scholar
  125. MARANO, F., SANTA–MARIA, A., KRISHNAWAMY, S.: Protoplasma 127, 82 – 92 (1985)Google Scholar
  126. MARCHANT, H.J.: The establishment and maintenance of plant cell shape by microtubules, 295–319. In: The Cytoskeleton in Plant Growth and Development, ed. C.W. LLOYD. London: Academic Press 1982Google Scholar
  127. MARGOLIS, R.L., WILSON, L.: Nature 293, 705– 711 (1981)Google Scholar
  128. MARGOLIS, R.L., RAUCH, C.T., WILSON, L.: Biochemistry 19, 5550 – 5557 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. MAY, G.S., GAMBINO, J., WEATHERBEE, J.A., MORRIS, N.R.: J. Cell Biol. 101, 712–719 (1 985)Google Scholar
  130. McDONALD, K.L., EDWARDS, M.K., McINTOSH, J.R.: J. Cell Biol. 83, 443 – 461 (1979)Google Scholar
  131. MCEWEN, B., EDELSTEIN, S.J.: J. Mol. Biol. 132, 123 – 143 (1980)Google Scholar
  132. McFADDEN, G.I., WETHERBEE, R.: Protoplasma 121, 186 – 198 (1984)Google Scholar
  133. McINTOSH, J.R., McDONALD, K.L., EDWARDS, M.K., ROSS, B.M.: J. Cell Biol. 83, 428 – 442 (1979a)Google Scholar
  134. McINTOSH, J.R., SISKEN, J.E., CHU, L.K.: J. Ultrastruct. Res. 66, 40 – 52 (1979b)Google Scholar
  135. McKEITHAN, T.W., ROSENBAUM, J.L.: J. Cell Biol. 91, 352 – 360 (1981)Google Scholar
  136. McKEITHAN, T.W., LEFEBVRE, P.A., SILFLOW, C.D., ROSENBAUM, J.L.: J. Cell Biol. 96, 1056 – 1063 (1983)Google Scholar
  137. McKERRACH– ER, L.J., HEATH, I.B.: Protoplasma 125, 162 – 172 (1985)Google Scholar
  138. MEINDL, U.: Protoplasma V1_8, 75–90 (1983); – ibid. 126, 74 – 90 (1985)Google Scholar
  139. MEINDL, U., KIERMAYER, 0.: Mikroskopie 38, 325–336 (1981); – Phyton 22, 115 – 135 (1982)Google Scholar
  140. MELKONIAN, M.: The functional analysis of the flagellar apparatus in green algae, 591–608. In: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Flagella, eds. W.B. AMOS, J.G. DUCKETT. London, New York: Cambridge University Press 1982; – Flagellar apparatus ultrastructure in relation to green algal classification, 73–120. In: Systematics of the Green Algae, eds. D.E.G. IRVINE, D.M. JOHN. London, Orlando: Academic Press 1984a; Flagellar root–mediated interactions between the flagellar apparatus and cell organelles in green algae, 96–108. In: Compartments in Algal Cells and Their Interaction, eds. W. WIESSNER, D.G. ROBINSON, R.C. STARR. Berlin–Heidelberg–New York: Springer 1984bGoogle Scholar
  141. MELKONIAN, M., BERNS, B.: Protoplasma 114, 67 – 84 (1983)Google Scholar
  142. MELKONIAN, M., PREISIG, H. R.: Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 6, 269–277 (1982); – Plant Syst. Evol. 146, 145 – 162 (1984)Google Scholar
  143. MENZEL, D.: Protoplasma 125, 103 – 110 (1985)Google Scholar
  144. MESLAND, D.A.M., SPIELE, H., ROOS, E.: Exp. Cell Res. 132, 169 – 184 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. MILLER, C.C.J., DUCKETT, J.G., SHETERLINE, P., CAROTHERS, Z.B.: J. Cell Sci. 61, 71 – 86 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. MINAMI, S.A., COLLIS, P.S., YOUNG, E.S., WEEKS, D.P.: Cell 24, 89 – 95 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. MINEYUKI, Y., FURUYA, M.: Plant Cell Physiol. 26, 627 – 634 (1985)Google Scholar
  148. MITA, T., SHIBAOKA, H.: Protoplas ma 119, 100 – 109 (1984)Google Scholar
  149. MITCHELL, D.R., ROSENBAUM, J.L.: J. Cell Biol. 100, 1228 – 1234 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. MITCHINSON, T., KIRSCHNER, M.: Nature 312, 237 – 242 (1984)Google Scholar
  151. MIZUKAMI, M., WADA, S.: Plant Cell Physiol. 22, 1245–1255 (1981); – Protoplasma 114, 151 – 162 (1983)Google Scholar
  152. MIZUNO, K.: Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 9, 13 – 21 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. MIZUNO, K., KOYAMA, M., SHIBA– OKA, H.: J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 89, 329 – 332 (1981)Google Scholar
  154. MIZUNO, K., SEK, F., PERKIN, J., WICK, S., DUNNIEC, J., GUNNING, B.: Protoplasma 129, 100– 108 (1985)Google Scholar
  155. MOREJOHN, L.C., FOSKET, D.E.: Nature 297, 426–428 (1982); J. Cell Biol. 99, 141–147 (1984a); – Science 224, 874 – 876 (1984b)Google Scholar
  156. MORELAND, D.E.: Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 31, 597 – 638 (1980)Google Scholar
  157. MORRIS, N.R., LAI, M.H., OAKLEY, B.E.: Cell 16, 437 – 442 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. MURRAY, J.M.: J. Cell Biol. 98, 283 – 295 (1983).Google Scholar
  159. NAGLE, B.W., EGRIE, J.C.: Calmodulin and ATPases in the mitotic appara–tus, 337 – 361. In: Mitosis, Cytokinesis, eds. A.M. ZIMMERMANN, A. FORER. New York: Academic Press 1981Google Scholar
  160. NATH, J.P., EAGLE, J.R., HIMES, R.H.: Biochemistry 24, 1555 – 1560 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. OAKLEY, B.R., MORRIS, N.R.: Cell 19, 255–262 (1980); – ibid. 24, 837– 845 (1981 )PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. OGAWA, K., NEGISHI, S., OBIKA, M.: J. Cell Biol. 92, 706 – 713 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. OSBORN, M., WEBER, K.: Meth. Cell Biol. 24, 98 – 132 (1982).Google Scholar
  164. PALEVITZ, B.A.: Protoplasma 107, 115–125 (1981); – The stomatal complex as a model of cytoskeletal participation in cell differentiation, 345–376. In: The Cytoskeleton in Plant Growth and Development, ed. C. W. LLOYD. London: Academic Press 1982Google Scholar
  165. PARNESS, J., HORWITZ, S.B.: J. Cell Biol. 91, 479 – 487 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. PETERSON, S.P., BERNS, M.W.: Int. Rev. Cytol. 64, 81 – 106 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. PFISTER, K., URBACH, W.: Effects of biocides and growth regulators: physiological basis, 329–391. In: Ency–clopedia of Plant Physiology, N. S., Vol. 12, Part D, eds. A. PIRSON, M.H. ZIMMERMANN. Berlin–Heidelberg–New York: Springer 1983Google Scholar
  168. PFISTER, K.K., WITMAN, G.B.: Cell Motil. 2, 525–547 (1982); – J. Biol. Chem. 259, 12072 – 12080 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. PICKETT–HEAPS, J.D., SPURCK, T.P.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 28, 77–82 (1982a); – ibid. 28, 83 – 91 (1982b)Google Scholar
  170. PICKETT-HEAPS, J.D., TIPPIT, D.H., LESLIE, R.: Eur. J. Cell Biol 2J_, 1–11 (1980a); – ibid. 21, 12 – 27 (1980b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. PICKETT–HEAPS, J.D., TIPPIT, D.H., PORTER, K.R.: Cell 29, 729 – 744 (1982)Google Scholar
  172. PIPERNO, G., LUCK, D.J. L.: Cell 27, 331 – 340 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. PIPERNO, G., HUANG, B., RAMANIS, Z., LUCK, D.J.L.: J. Cell Biol. 88, 73 – 79 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. PORTER, M., JOHNSON, K.: J. Biol. Chem. 258, 6582 – 6587 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. POWELL, A., LLOYD, C.,, SLABAS, A., COVE, D.: Plant Sci. Lett. 18, 401 – 404 (1980).Google Scholar
  176. QUADER, H.: J. Cell Sci., in press (1986)Google Scholar
  177. QUADER, H., FILNER, P.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 21, 301 – 304 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. QUINLAN, R.A., R00B0L, A., POGSON, C.I., GULL, K.: J. Gen. Microbiol. 122, 1 – 6 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. RAUDASKOWSKI, M.: Protoplasma 103, 323 – 331 (1980)Google Scholar
  180. ROBERTS, I.R., LLOYD, C.W., ROBERTS, K.: Planta 164, 439 – 447 (1985)Google Scholar
  181. ROBERTS, K.R.: J. Phycol. 21, 641 – 655 (1985)Google Scholar
  182. R00B0L, A., POGSON, C., GULL, K.: Exp. Cell Res. 130, 203 – 215 (1980)Google Scholar
  183. R00B0L, A., HAVERCROFT, J.C., GULL, K.: J. Cell Sci. 55, 365 – 382 (1982)Google Scholar
  184. ROOS, U.P., CAMENZIND, R.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 25, 248 – 257 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. SAKAI, H., MORI, H., BORISY, G.G.: Biological Functions of Microtubules and Related Structures. New York: Academic Press 1982Google Scholar
  186. SALE, W. S., G00DEN0UGH, U.W., HEUSER, J.E.: J. Cell Biol. 100, 1400 – 1412 (1985)Google Scholar
  187. SALTARELLI, D., PANTALONI, D.: Biochemistry 21, 2996–3005 (1982); – ibid. 22, 4607 – 4614 (1983)Google Scholar
  188. SATIR, P., WAIS–STEIDER, J., LEBDUSKA, S., NASR, A., AVIOLO, J.: Cell Motil. 1, 303 – 328 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. SCHEDL, T., OWENS, J., DOVE, W.F., BURLAND, T.G.: Genetics 108, 143 – 164 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. SCHIFF, P.B., HORWITZ, S.B.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 1561 – 1565 (1980)Google Scholar
  191. SCHLIWA, M.: The Cytoskeleton. An Introductory Survey (Cell Biol. Monographs, Vol. 13 ) Wien, New York: Springer 1986Google Scholar
  192. SCHMIEDEL, G., SCHNEPF, E., Planta 147, 405 – 413 (1980)Google Scholar
  193. SCHMIEDEL, G., REISS, H.-D., SCHNEPF, E.: Protoplasma 108, 173 – 190 (1981)Google Scholar
  194. SCHMIT, A.-C., VANTARD, D., DE MEY, J., LAMBERT, A.-M.: Plant Cell Rep. 2, 285 – 288 (1983)Google Scholar
  195. SCHNEPF, E.: Morphogenesis in moss protonema, 321–344. In: The Cytoskeleton in Plant Growth and Development, ed. C.W. LLOYD, London: Academic Press 1982; – Protoplasma 120, 100 – 112 (1984)Google Scholar
  196. SCHNEPF, E., HEINZMANN, J.: Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen 175, 67 – 76 (1980)Google Scholar
  197. SCHNEPF, E., DEICHGRÄBER, G., DREBES, G.: Protoplasma 124, 188 – 204 (1985)Google Scholar
  198. SCHROEDER, M., WEHLAND, J., WEBER, K.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 38, 211 – 218 (1985)Google Scholar
  199. SCHULZE, E., KIRSCHNER, M.: J. Cell Biol. 102, 1020 – 1031 (1986)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. SILFLOW, C.D., ROSENBAUM, J.L.: Cell 24, 81– 88 (1981)Google Scholar
  201. SIMMONDS, D., SETTERFIELD, G., BROWN, D.L.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 32, 59 – 66 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. SIMMONDS, D.H., SEAGULL, R.W., SETTERFIELD, G.: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 33, 345 – 352 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. SLABAS, A.R., MCDONALD, G., LLOYD, C.W.: FEBS Lett. 110, 77 – 79 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. SLUIMAN, H.J., ROBERTS, K.R., STEWART, K.D., MATTOX, K.R.: J. Phycol. 18, 1 – 12 (1982).Google Scholar
  205. SNYDER, J.A., HAMILTON, B.T., MULLINS, J.M.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 27, 191 – 199 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. STEARNS, M.E., BROWN, D.L.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 16, 5745–5749 (1979); – J. Ultrastruct. Res. 77, 366 – 378 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. STOURNARAS, C., ZIMMERMANN, H.-P., DOENGES, K.H., FAULSTICH, H.: Cell Biochem. Funct. 2, 213 – 216 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. SULLIVAN, K.F., WILSON, L.: J. Neurochem. 42, 1363 – 1371 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. TAKEDA, K., SHIBAOKA, H.: Planta 151, 393 – 398 (1981)Google Scholar
  210. TANG, W.–J.Y., BELL, C.W., SALE, W.S., GIBBONS, I.R.: J. Biol. Chem. 257, 508 – 515 (1982)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. TIPPIT, D.H., PILLUS, L., PICKETT–HEAPS, J.: J. Cell Biol. 87, 531 – 545 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. TIWARI, S.C., WICK, S.M., WILLIAMSON, R.E., GUNNING, B.E.S.: J. Cell Biol. 99, 63s – 69s (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. TRAAS, J.A.: Protoplasma 119, 212 – 218 (1984)Google Scholar
  214. TRAAS, J.A., BRAAT, P., DERKSEN, J.W.: Eur. J. Cell Biol. 34, 229 – 238 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. TRAAS, J.A., BRAAT, P., EMONS, A.M.C., MEEKES, H., DERKSEN, J.: J. Cell Sci. 76, 303 – 320 (1985)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. TSUKITA, S., ISHIKAWA, H.: Biomed. Res. 2, 424 – 437 (1981)Google Scholar
  217. TSUKITA, S., TSUKITA, S., USUKURA, J., ISHIKAWA, H.: J. Cell Biol. 96, 1480– 1485 (1983).Google Scholar
  218. VALE, R.D., REESE, T.S., SHEETZ, M.P.: Cell 41, 39 – 42 (1985)Google Scholar
  219. VALENZUELA, P., QUIROGA, M., ZALDIVAR, J., RUTTER, W.J., KIRSCHNER, M.W., CLEVELAND, D.W.: Nature 289, 650 – 655 (1981)Google Scholar
  220. VAN DER VALK, P., RENNIE, P.J., CONNOLLY, J.A., FOWKE, L.C.: Protoplasma 105, 27 – 43 (1980)Google Scholar
  221. VAN LAMMEREN, A,A.M., KEIJZER, C.J., WILLEMSE, M.T.M., KIEFT, H.: Planta 165, 1 – 11 (1985).Google Scholar
  222. WARNER, F.D., MITCHELL, D.R.: Int. Rev. Cytol. 66, 1 – 43 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. WAR–NER, F.D., ZANETTI, N.C.: J. Cell Biol. 86, 436 – 445 (1980)Google Scholar
  224. WEATHER– BEE, J.A., MORRIS, N.R.: J. Cell Biol. 91, 217a (1983); – J. Biol. Chem. 259, 15452 – 15459 (1984)Google Scholar
  225. WEATHERBEE, J.A., MAY, G.S., GAMBINO, J., MORRIS, N.R.: J. Cell Biol. 221, 706 – 711 (1985)Google Scholar
  226. WEHLAND, J., WILLINGHAM, M.C., SANDOVAL, I.V.: J. Cell Biol. 97, 1467 – 1475 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. WEISS, R.L.: J. Cell Sci. 67, 133 – 143 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. WEISS, D.G., GROSS, G.W.: Protoplasma 114, 179 – 197 (1983)Google Scholar
  229. WHEATLEY, D.N.: The Centriole: A Central Enigma in Cell Biology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical Press 1982Google Scholar
  230. WICK, S.M., DUNIEC, J.: J. Cell Biol. 97, 235–243 (1983); – Protoplasma 122, 45 – 55 (1984)Google Scholar
  231. WICK, S.M., HEPLER, P.K.: J. Cell Biol. 86, 500 – 513 (1980)Google Scholar
  232. WICK, S.M., SEAGULL, R.W., OSBORN, M., WEBER, K., GUNNING, B.E.S.: J. Cell Biol. 89, 685 – 690 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. WICK, S.M., MUTO, S., DUNIEC, J.: Protoplasma 126, 198 – 206 (1985)Google Scholar
  234. WILSON, L., JORDAN, M.A., MORSE, A., MARGOLIS, R.M.: J. Mol. Biol. 159, 125– 149 (1982)Google Scholar
  235. WILSON, L., MILLER, H.P., PFEFFER, T.A., SULLIVAN, K.F., DETRICH, H.W.: J. Cell Biol. 99, 37 – 41 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. WITMAN, G.B., JOHNSON, K.A., PFISTER, K.K., WALL, J.S.: J. Submicrosc. Cytol. 15, 193 – 197 (1983)Google Scholar
  237. WOLNIAK, S.M., HEPLER, P.K., JACKSON, W.T.: J. Cell Biol. 87, 23–32 (1980); – ibid. 96, 598 – 605 (1983).Google Scholar
  238. YADAV, N.S., FILNER, P.: Planta 157, 46 – 52 (1983)Google Scholar
  239. YAMASAKI, S., MAEDA, T., MIKI–NOMURA, T.: Flexual rigidity of singlet microtubules estimated from statistical analysis of fluctuating images, 41–48. In: Biological Functions of Microtubules and Related Structures, eds. H. SAKAI, H. MORI, G.G. BORISY. New York: Academic Press 1982Google Scholar
  240. YOUNG– MAN: Herbizide, 132–151. In: Pflanzentoxikologie Der Einfluß von Schadstoffen und Schadwirkungen auf Pflanzen, eds. B. HOCK, E.F. ELSTNER. Mannheim, Wien, Zürich: B.I.W. Wissenschaftsverlag 1984.Google Scholar
  241. ZIEVE, G.W., McINTOSH, J.R.: J. Cell Sci. 48, 241 – 258 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. ZIMMERMANN, H.-P., ROEDERER, G., DOENGES, K.H.: J. Submicrosc. Cytol. 16 203 – 205 (1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Udo Kristen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Allgemeine BotanikUniversität HamburgHamburg 52Germany

Personalised recommendations