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Benzodiazepinrezeptoren und ihre Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Biologie der Angst

  • W. Sieghart
Conference paper

Zusammenfassung

Im Laufe der Zeit wurden viele verschiedene Substanzen zur Bekämpfung der Angst verwendet, so z. B. Äthanol, in Form von alkoholischen Getränken, aber auch Opiate, Barbiturate, andere Sedativa, β-Blocker, Neuroleptika und Antide-pressiva. 1951 wurde Meprobamat erstmals ausgetestet und galt damals bald als das relativ potenteste Anxiolytikum (Berger 1963). 1957 wurde dann die Tranquilizerwirkung des von Sternbach synthetisierten Benzodiazepins Chlordiazepoxid entdeckt, und bereits 2½ Jahre später wurde diese Substanz unter dem Namen Librium in die Klinik eingeführt (Sternbach 1980). Weitere intensive Forschungsarbeiten führten zur Synthese einer Vielzahl von verschiedenen Benzodiazepinen (BZD), die sich von Librium v. a. durch ihre wesentlich höhere anxiolytische Potenz unterscheiden (Sternbach 1980). Da BZD von allen Medikamenten die stärkste anxiolytische Wirksamkeit aufwiesen, bestand von allem Anfang an die Hoffnung, daß die genaue Kenntnis ihres Wirkungsmechanismus möglicherweise auch Aufschluß über die physiologischen und biologischen Mechanismen der Angst geben würde. Neben ihrer anxiolytischen Wirkung besitzen BZD aber auch antikonvulsive, muskelrelaxierende und hypnotische Eigenschaften, und da alle bekannten BZD diese verschiedenen Wirkungen in mehr oder weniger ähnlichem Maße ausüben, wurde ursprünglich angenommen, daß die einzelnen BZD-Wirkungen nicht voneinander zu trennen sind.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

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  • W. Sieghart

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