Late Phase Reactions

  • W. Dorsch
  • J. Ring


Late phase reactions (LPR) have been considered generally as Arthus phenomenon (type III allergy according to Coombs and Gell). IgE-antibodies, however, are able to initiate not only immediate (WFR), but also late cutaneous reactions (LCR). Using the skin blister technique we could show LCR to be mediated by inflammatory mediators generated during the preceeding WFR. Histamine, active kallikrein, leukotrienes, thromboxanes and platelet activating property were demonstrable in dual skin reactions. The concentration of these mediators in skin blister fluid was in part related to the time course of skin reactions. LCRs were diminished by eicosatetraynoic acid (not by indomethacin), by dazoxiben (thromboxane synthetase inhibitor) as well as by ethanolic onion extract. Betamimetics as salbutamol and anticholinergics as ipratropiumbromide could reverse late bronchial reactions (LBR), besides disodium cromoglicicum and ethanolic onion extract could prevent LBR. Other authors found prostaglandin D2 and chemotactic substances during LPRs as well as protective effects of corticosteroids, combined histamine-H1/H2 receptor antagonists and tranexamic acid.

Two types of LPR have to be distinguished: type I and type III. The first is initiated by an IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and maintained by a complex interaction of mediators and cells. It may represent a laboratory model of long lasting asthmatic conditions.


Mast Cell Allergy Clin Immunol Tranexamic Acid Allergen Challenge Bronchial Hyperreactivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Dorsch
    • 1
  • J. Ring
    • 1
  1. 1.Kinderpoliklinik and Dermatologische Klinikder Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunich 2Federal Republic of Germany

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