Advertisement

Usefulness of Regional Bone Measurements in Patients with Osteoporotic Fractures

  • C. Christiansen
  • B. Riis
  • L. Nilas
  • A. Gotfredsen
Conference paper
Part of the Radiology Today book series (RADIOL.TODAY, volume 4)

Abstract

The measurement of the bone mineral content of the skeleton has revolutionized the study of osteoporosis in the last 25 years. Initially, methods of grading the degree of bone loss from simple radiographs of the lumbar spine [1] and the femoral neck [2] were described. The poor precision of these techniques [3] led to the first method for measuring bone mass by the absorption of monoenergetic photons [4]. The distal third of the radius became the most widely used site [5], but methods have also been reported for os calcis [6], femur [7], and metacarpals [8]. It recently became possible to examine the bones of the spine using a dual isotope technique of photon absorptiometry [9]. Either a single dichromatic source [10] or two monochromatic sources [11] are used to measure the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th lumbar vertebrae, allowing an estimate of the axial trabecular bone mineral content to be made [12].

Keywords

Bone Mineral Density Bone Mass Vertebral Fracture Osteoporotic Fracture Bone Mineral Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Barnett E, Nordin BEC (1960) The radiological diagnosis of osteoporosis: a new approach. Clin Radiol 11: 166–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Singh M, Nagrath AR, Maini PS (1970) Changes in the trabecular pattern of the upper end of the femur as an index of osteoporosis. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 52: 457–467Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mazess RB (1979) Non-invasive measurement of bone. In: Barzel US (ed) Osteoporosis II. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 5–26Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cameron JR, Sorensen J (1963) Measurement of bone mineral in vivo: an improved method. Science 142: 230–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mazess RB (1971) Estimation of bone and skeletal weight by direct photon absorptiometry. Invest Radiol 6: 52–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vogel JM, Anderson JT (1972) Rectilinear transmission scanning of irregular bones for quantification of mineral content. J Nucl Med 13: 13–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    West RR, Reed GW (1980) The measurement of bone mineral in vivo by photon beam scanning. Br J Radiol 43: 886–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shimmins J, Smith DA, Aitken M, Anderson JB, Gilespie FC (1972) The accuracy and reproducibility of bone mineral measurements “in vivo”. Clin Radiol 23: 47–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reed GW (1966) The assessment of bone mineralisation from the relative transmission of 241 Am and 137Cs radiations. Phys Med Biol 11: 174Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mazess RB, Ort M, Judy P, Mather W (1970) Absorptiometric bone mineral determination using 153Gd. In: Cameron JR (ed) Proceedings of bone measurements conference (Conference 700515 ). US Atomic Energy Commission, Washington DC, pp 308–312Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roos BO, Skoldborn H (1974) Dual photon absorptiometry in lumbar vertebrae. Acta Radiol (Ther) 13: 266–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krolner B, Pors Nielsen S (1980) Measurement of bone mineral content of the lumbar spine; I. Theory and application of a new two dimensional dual photon attenuation method. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 40: 653–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peppier WW, Mazess RB (1981) Total body bone mineral and lean body mass by dual photon absorptiometry. Calcif Tissue Int 33: 353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gotfredsen A, Borg J, Christiansen C (1983) Total body bone mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry. Calcif Tissue Int 35 s: A2Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nilas L, Borg J, Gotfredsen A, Christiansen C (1985) Comparison of single and dual photon absorptiometry in postmenopausal bone mineral loss. J Nucl Med 26: 1257–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nilas L, Nergaard H, Pødenphant J, Gotfredsen A, Christiansen C (1987) Bone composition in the distal forearm. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 47 (to be published)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gotfredsen A, Borg J, Christiansen C, Mazess RB (1984) Total body bone mineral in vivo by dual photon absorptiometry: I. Measurement procedures. Clin Phys 4: 343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gotfredsen A, Jensen J, Borg J, Christiansen C (1986) Measurement of lean body mass and total body fat using dual photon absorptiometry. Metabolism 35: 88–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gotfredsen A, Borg J, Christiansen C, Mazess RB (1984) Total body bone mineral in vivo by dual photon absorptiometry II. Accuracy. Clin Physiol 4: 357–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nilas L, Podenphant J, Riis BJ, Christiansen C (1987) Usefulness of regional bone measurements in patients with osteoporotic fractures of the spine and distal forearm. J Nucl Med (to be published )Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nilas L, Gotfredsen A, Riis BJ, Christiansen C (1986) The diagnostic validity of local and total bone mineral measurements in postmenopausal women and patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteoarthrosis. Clin Endocrinol 25: 711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gotfredsen A, Nilas L, Riis BJ, Thomsen K, Christiansen C (1986) Bone changes occurring spontaneously and caused by oestrogen in early postmenopausal women: a local or generalised phenomenon. Br Med J 292: 1098–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jensen GF, Christiansen C, Boesen J, Hegedus V, Transbøl J (1982) Epidemiology of postmenopausal spinal and long bone fractures. Clin Orthop 166: 75–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grubb SA, Jacobsen PC, Awbrey BJ, McCartney WH, Vincent LM, Takurage RV (1984) Bone density in osteopenic women: a modified distal radius density measurement procedure to develop an “at risk” value for use in screening women. J Orthop Res 2: 322–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith DM, Johnston CC, Yu P-L (1972) In vivo measurement of bone mass. Its use in demineralized states such as osteoporosis. JAMA 219: 325–329Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hesp R, Deacon AC, Hulme P, Reeve J (1984) Trends in trabecular and cortical bone in the radius compared with whole body calcium balance in osteoporosis. Clin Sci 66: 109–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nilas L, Gotfredsen A, Christiansen C (1986) Total and local bone mass before and after normalization for indices of bone and body size. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 46: 53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wilson CR, Madsen M (1977) Dichromatic absorptiometry of vertebral bone mineral content. Invest Radiol 12: 180–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dunn WL, Wahner HW, Riggs BL (1980) Measurement of bone mineral content in human vertebrae and hip by dual photon absorptiometry. Radiology 136: 485–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Christiansen C, Christensen MS, McNair P, Hagen C, Stocklund KE, Transbøl I (1980) Prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss. Eur J Clin Invest 2: 273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lindsay R, Aitken JM, Anderson JB, Hart DM, MacDonald EB, Clarke AC (1976) Long-term prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis by oestrogen. Lancet i: 1038–1041Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Christianen C, Christensen MS, Transbøl I (1981) Bone mass in postmenopausal women after withdrawal of oestrogen/gestagen replacement therapy. Lancet i: 459–461Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Christiansen
  • B. Riis
  • L. Nilas
  • A. Gotfredsen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations