Review of Epidemiology in Relation to Passive Smoking

  • G. Pershagen
Part of the Archives of Toxicology book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 9)

Abstract

Large segments of the population in many countries are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke which means that health effects resulting from this exposure are of great public health concern. Acute irritation of the eyes and airways as well as annoyance are probably the most common effects of passive smoking. Children with smoking parents run an increased risk of bronchitis and pneumonia. This seems to be related primarily to the smoking habits of the mother Pulmonary function changes have also been reported in passive smokers but the data are not consistent. There are a few epidemiologic studies showing an increased risk of lung cancer in nonsmokers married to smokers. These studies may be affected with various types of biases and the association can not at present be regarded as causal. Particular attention should be put on the acquisition of precise and accurate exposure information in future epidemiologic investigations on health effects related to passive smoking.

Key words

Bias Bronchitis Lung cancer Lung function Passive smoking 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Best EWR (1966) A Canadian study of smoking and health. Department of National Health and Welfare, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  2. Bland M, Bewley BR, Pollard V, Banks MH (1978) Effect of children’s and parent’s smoking on respiratory symptoms. Arch Dis Childhood 53: 100–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonham GS, Wilson RW (1981) Children’s health in families with cigarette smokers. Am J Public Health 71: 290–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cameron P, Robertson D (1973) Effect of home environment tobacco smoke on family health. J Appl Psychol 57: 142–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cameron P, Kostin JS, Zaks JM, Wolfe JH, Tighe G, Oselett B, Stocker R, Winton J (1969) The health of smokers’ and non-smokers’ children. J Allergy 43: 336–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cederlöf R, Friberg L, Hrubec Z, Lorich U (1975) The relationship of smoking and some social covariables to mortality and cancer morbidity. Department of Environmental Hygiene, Karolinska Institute, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan WC, MacLellan R (1977) Lung cancer in Hong Cong Chinese. Br J Cancer 35: 226–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chan WC, Fung SC (1982) Lung cancer in non-smokers in Hong Kong. In: Grundmann E (ed) Cancer Campaign. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 6: 199–202Google Scholar
  9. Charlton A (1984) Children’s coughs related to parental smoking. Br Med J 288: 1647–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colley JRT (1974) Respiratory symptoms in children and parental smoking and phlegm production. Br Med J 2: 201–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colley JRT, Holland WW, Corkhill RT (1974) Influence of passive smoking and parental phlegm on pneumonia and bronchitis in early childhood. Lancet 2: 1031–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Comstock GW, Meyer MB, Helsing KJ, Tockman MS (1981) Respiratory effects of household exposures to tobacco smoke and gas cooking. Am Rev Resp Dis 124: 143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Correa P, Pickle LW, Fontham E, Lin Y, Haenszel W (1983) Passive smoking and lung cancer. Lancet 2: 595–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dahms TE, Bolin JF, Slavin RG (1981) Passive smoking effects on bronchial asthma. Chest 80: 530–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dodge R (1982) The effects of indoor pollution on Arizona children. Arch Environ Health 37: 151–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Doll R, Hill AB (1964) Mortality in relation to smoking: Ten years’ observations of British doctors. Brit Med J 1: 1399–1410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doll R, Peto R (1978) Cigarette smoking and bronchial carcinoma: Dose and time relationships among regular smokers and lifelong non-smokers. J Epidemiol Commun Health 32: 303–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dorn HF (1959) Tobacco consumption and mortality from cancer and other diseases. Public Health Rep 74: 581–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunn JE, Linden G, Breslow L (1960) Lung cancer mortality experience of men in certain occupations of California. J Public Health 50: 1475–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dutau G, Enjaume C, Petrus M, Darcos P, Demeurisse P, Rochiccioli (1981) Epidemiology of passive smoking of children from 0 to 6 years. Arch Fr Pediat 38: 721–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Shannon FT (1980) Parental smoking and respiratory illness in infancy. Arch Dis Childhood 55: 358–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feyerabend C, Higgenbottam T, Russel MAH (1982) Nicotine concentrations in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers. Br Med J 284: 1002–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Friedman GD, Petitti DB, Bawol RD (1983) Prevalence and correlates of passive smoking. Am J Public Health 73: 401–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garfinkel L (1981) Time trends in lung cancer mortality among non-smokers and a note on passive smoking. JNCI 66: 1061–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gillis CR, Hole DJ, Hawthorne VM, Boyle P (1984) The effect of environmental tobacco smoke in two urban communities in the west of Scotland. Eur J Resp Dis, Suppl 133, 65: 121–126Google Scholar
  26. Gortmaker SL, Walker D, Jacobs FH, Ruch-Ross H (1982) Parental smoking and the risk of childhood asthma. Am J Public Health 72: 574–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Greenberg RA, Haley NJ, Etzed R, Loda FA (1984) Measuring the exposure of infants to tobacco smoke. N Engl J Med 310: 1075–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hammond EC (1966) Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. In: Haenzel W (ed) Epidemiological approaches to the study of cancer and other chronic diseases. National Cancer Institute Monograph No 19, US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Bethesda, pp 127–204Google Scholar
  29. Hammond EC, Horn D (1958) Smoking and death rates-Report on forty-four months of follow-up of 187.783 men. II. Death rates by cause. Am Med Assoc 166: 1294–1308Google Scholar
  30. Harlap S, Davies AM (1974) Infant admissions to hospital and maternal smoking. Lancet 1: 529–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hasselblad V, Humble CG, Graham MG (1981) Indoor environmental determinants of lung function in children. Am Rev Resp Dis 123: 479–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hirayama T (1975) Prospective studies on cancer epidemiology based on census population in Japan. In: Bucalossi P, Veronesi U, Cascinelli N (eds) Cancer epidemiology, environmental factors. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 3: 26–35Google Scholar
  33. Hirayama T (1981) Non-smoking wives of heavy smokers have a higher risk of lung cancer: A study from Japan. Br Med J 282: 183–185, 283: 1466Google Scholar
  34. Holma B, Kjaer G, Stokholm J (1979) Air pollution, hygiene and health of Danish school children. Sci Tot Environ 12: 251–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jarvis MJ, Russel MA (1984) Measurement and estimation of smoke dosage to non-smokers from environmental tobacco smoke. Eur J Respir Dis, Suppl 133, 65: 68–75Google Scholar
  36. Jarvis MJ, Russel MAH, Feyerabend C (1983) Absorption of nicotine and carbon monoxide from passive smoking under natural conditions of exposure. Thorax 38: 829–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kabat GC, Wynder EL (1984) Lung cancer in nonsmokers. Cancer 53: 1214–1221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kahn HA (1966) The Dorn study of smoking and mortality among US Veterans: Report on eight and one-half years of observation. In: Haenzel W (ed) Epidemiological approaches to the study of cancer and other chronic diseases. National Cancer Institute Monograph No 19, US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Bethesda, pp 1–125Google Scholar
  39. Kasuga H, Hasebe A, Osaka F, Matsuki H (1979) Respiratory symptoms in school children and the role of passive smoking. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 4: 101–114Google Scholar
  40. Kauffmann F, Tessier JF, Oriol P (1983) Adult passive smoking in the home environment: A risk factor for chronic airflow limitation. Am J Epidemiol 117: 269–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Knoth A, Bohn H, Schmidt F (1983) Passives rauchen als Lungenkrebsursache bei Lungenkrebsursache bei Nichtraucherinnen. Med Klin 78: 66–69Google Scholar
  42. Koo LC, Ho JHC, Saw D (1984) Is passive smoking an added risk factor for lung cancer in Chinese women? J Exp Clin Cancer Res 3: 277–283Google Scholar
  43. Leeder SR, Corkhill RT, Irwig CM, Holland WW, Colley JRT (1976) Influence of family factors on asthma and wheezing (and lower respiratory illness) during the first years of life. Br J Prey Soc Med 30: 203–218Google Scholar
  44. Lebowitz MD, Burrows B (1976) Respiratory symptoms related to smoking habits of family adults. Chest 69: 48–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lebowitz MD, Armet DB, Knudson R (1982) the effect of passive smoking on pulmonary function in children. Environ Int 8: 371–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liard R, Perdizet S, Reinert P (1982) Wheezy bronchitis in infants and parents’ smoking habits. Lancet 1: 334–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Love GJ, Lan SP, Shy CM (1982a) A study of acute respiratory disease in families exposed to different levels of air pollution in the Great Salt Lake Basin, Utah, 1971–1972 and 1972–1973. Environ Health Perspect 44: 165–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Love GJ, Lan SP, Shy CM, Riggan WB (1982b) Acute respiratory illness in families exposed to nitrogen dioxide ambient air pollution in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Arch Environ Health 37: 75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Matsukura S, Taminato T, Kitano N, Seino Y, Hamada H, Uchihashi M, Nakajima H, Hirata Y (1984) Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on urinary cotinine excretion in non-smokers. N Engl J Med 311: 828–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Miettinen O (1976) Estimability and estimation in case referent studies. Am J Epidemiol 103: 226–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Miller GH (1984) Cancer, passive smoking and nonemployed and employed wives. West J Med 140: 632–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Minor TE, Drok EC, Baker JW, Qulette JJ, Cohen M, Reed CE (1976) Rhinovirus and influenza type A infections as precipitants of asthma. Am Rev Resp Dis 113: 149–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Norman-Taylor W, Dickinson VA (1972) Dangers for children in smoking families. Community Med 128: 32–33Google Scholar
  54. O’Connell EJ, Logan GB (1974) Parental smoking in childhood asthma. Ann Allergy 32: 142–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Pershagen G, Hrubec Z, Lingner M, Väänänen R (1985) Passive smoking and other determinants of respiratory symptoms and diseases in children. National Institute of Environmental Medicine, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  56. Pimm PG, Silverman F, Shepard RS (1978) Physiological effects of acute passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Arch Environ Health 33: 201–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Pullan CR, Hey EN (1982) Wheezing, asthma, and pulmonary dysfunction 10 years after infection with respiratory syncytial virus in infancy. Br Med J 284: 1665–1669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rantakallio P (1978) Relationship of maternal smoking to morbidity and mortality of the child up to the age of five. Acta Paediat Scand 67: 621–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Said G, Zalokar J, Lellouch J, Patois E (1978) Parental smoking related to adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy in children. J Epidemiol Community Health 32: 97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sandler DP, Everson RB, Wilcox AS (1985) Passive smoking in adulthood and cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 121:37–48, Lancet 1: 867Google Scholar
  61. Schilling RSF, Letai AD, Hui SL, Beck GJ, Schoenberg JB, Bouhuys A (1977) Lung function, respiratory disease, and smoking in families. Am J Epidemiol 106: 274–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Shephard RJ, Collins R, Silverman F (1979a) Responses of exercising subjects to acute “passive” cigarette smoke exposure. Environ Res 19: 279–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shephard RJ, Collins R, Silverman F (1979b) “Passive” exposure of asthmatic subjects to cigarette smoke. Environ Res 20:392–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sims DG, Downham MAP, Gardner PS, Webb JKG, Weightman D (1978) Study of 8-year-old children with a history of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy. Br Med J 1: 11–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Speizer FE, Ferris B Jr, Bishop YMM, Spengler J (1980) Respiratory disease rates and pulmonary function in children associated with NO2 exposure. Am Rev Respir Dis 121: 3–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Tager IB, Weiss ST, Rosner B, Speizer FE (1979) Effect of parental cigarette smoking on the pulmonary function of children. Am J Epidemiol 110: 15–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Tager IB, Weiss ST, Munoz A, Rosner B, Speizer FE (1983) Longitudinal study of the effects of maternal smoking on pulmonary function in children. N Engl J Med 309: 699–703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tashkin DP, Clark VA, Simmons M, Reems C, Coulson AH, Bourque LB, Sayre JW, Detels R, Rokaw S (1984) The UCLA population studies of chronic obstructive respiratory disease. Am Rev Resp Dis 129: 891–897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Trichopoulos D, Kalandidi A, Sparros L, MacMahon B (1981, 1983 ) Lung cancer and passive smoking. Int J Cancer 27:1–4, Lancet 2: 677–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. US Surgeon General (1979) Smoking and health. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  71. Vutuc C (1983) Lung cancer risk and passive smoking: Quantitative aspects. Zbl Bakt Hyg 177: 90–95Google Scholar
  72. Wald N, Ritchie C (1984) Validation of studies on lung cancer in non-smokers married to smokers. Lancet 1: 1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wald NJ, Boreham J, Bailey A, Ritchie C, Haddow JE, Knight G (1984) Urinary cotinine as marker of breathing other people’s tobacco smoke. Lancet 1: 230–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weber A (1984) Acute effects of environmental tobacco smoke. Eur J Resp Dis, Suppl 133, 65: 98–108Google Scholar
  75. Weir JM, Dunn JE (1970) Smoking and mortality: A prospective study. Cancer 25: 105–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Weiss ST, Tager IB, Speizer FE, Rosner B (1980) Persistent wheeze. Its relation to respiratory illness, cigarette smoking, and level of pulmonary function in a population sample of children. Am Rev Resp Dis 122: 697–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. White JR, Froeb HF (1980) Small-airways dysfunction in non-smokers chronically exposed to tobacco smoke. N Engl J Med 302: 720–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wittig HJ, McLoughlin ET, Leifer KL, Belloit JD (1978) Risk factors for the development of allergic disease: Analysis of 2190 patient records. Ann Allergy 41: 84–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Yarnell JWG, StLeger AS (1979) Respiratory illness, maternal smoking habit and lung function in children. Br J Dis Chest 73: 230–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Pershagen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology National Institute of Environmental MedicineStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations