Blood Flow and Metabolism in Brain Stem — Pathophysiological Implications

  • A. Baethmann
Conference paper


Not only the neurosurgeon but also neurochemists and -physiologists have an increasing exploratory access to the brain including brain stem structures with an ever better resolution for functional and metabolic studies. Purpose of this discussion is to compare and relate blood flow and metabolic findings in brain stem with other cerebral areas under normal and various pathophysiological situations, such as hypotension, anesthesia, etc. and to analyze metabolic aspects ofbrain stem injury.


Brain Stem Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Pathophysiological Implication Brain Stem Lesion Local Cerebral Glucose Utilization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bruce DA, Langfitt TW, Miller JD, Schutz H, Vapalahti MP, Stanek A, Goldberg HI (1973) Regional cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, and brain metabolism in comatose patients. J Neurosurg 38: 131–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen RYZ, Fan FC, Schuessler GB, Usami S, Chien S (1983) Effects of sphere size and injection site on regional cerebral blood flow measurements. Stroke 14: 769–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Duckrow RB, LaManna JC, Rosenthal M, Levasseur JE, Patterson JL, Jr (1981) Oxidative metabolic activity of cerebral cortex after fluid-percussion head injury in the cat. J Neurosurg 54: 607–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Enevoldsen EM, Cold G, Jensen FT, Malmros R (1976) Dynamic changes in regional CBF, intraventricular pressure, CSF pH and lactate levels during the acute phase of head injury. J Neurosurg 44: 191–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hayes RL, Pechura CM, Katayama Y, Povlishock JT, Giebel ML, Becker DP (1984) Activation of pontine cholinergic sites implicated in unconsciousness following cerebral concussion in the cat. Science 223: 301–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Heistad DD, Marcus ML, Gross PM (1978) Effects of sympathetic nerves on cerebral vessels in dog, cat, and monkey. Am J Physiol 235 (5): 544–552Google Scholar
  7. Kassell NF, Boarini DJ, Olin JJ, Sprowell JA (1983) Cerebral and systemic circulatory effects of arterial hypotension induced by adenosine. J Neurosurg 58: 69–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. McCulloch J, Savaki HE, Jehle J, Sokoloff L (1982) Local cerebral glucose utilization in hypothermic and hyperthermic rats. J Neurochem 39: 255–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mueller SM, Heistad DD, Marcus ML (1977) Total and regional cerebral blood flow during hypotension, hypertension, and hypocapnia. Effect of sympathetic denervation in dogs. Circ Res 41: 350–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Nilsson B, Nordström CH (1977) Rate of cerebral energy consumption in concussive head injury in the rat. J Neurosurg 47: 274–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ohata M, Sundaram U, Fredericks WR, London ED, Rapoport SI (1981) Regional cerebral blood flow during development and aging of the rat brain. Brain 104: 319–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Reivich M, Jehle J, Sokoloff L, Kety SS (1969) Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with antipyrine-14C in awake cats. J Appl Physiol 27: 296–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Rinder L, Olsson Y (1968a) Studies on vascular permeability changes in experimental brain concussion. I. Distribution of circulating fluorescent indicators in brain and cervical cord after sudden mechanical loading of the brain. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 11: 183–200Google Scholar
  14. Rinder L, Olsson Y (1968b) Studies on vascular permeability changes in experimental brain concussion. II. Duration of altered permeability. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 11: 201–209Google Scholar
  15. Sokoloff L, Reivich M, Kennedy C, Des Rosiers MH, Patlak CS, Pettigrew KD, Sakurada O, Shinohara M (1977) The 14C-deoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization: theory, procedure, and normal values in the conscious and anesthetized albino rat. J Neurochem 28: 897–916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sullivan HG, Martinez J, Becker DP, Miller JD, Griffith R, Wist AO (1976) Fluid-percussion model of mechanical brain injury in the cat. J Neurosurg 45: 520–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Takahashi H, Manaka S, Sano K (1981) Changes in extracellular potassium concentration in cortex and brain stem during the acute phase of experimental closed head injury. J Neurosurg 55: 708–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Baethmann
    • 1
  1. 1.MünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations