Cognitive and Physiological Processes in the Maintainance and Treatment of Panic Attacks

  • Paul M. Salkovskis
  • David M. Clark

Abstract

Panic attacks are defined as sudden onset episodes of intense anxiety accompanied by a range of unpleasant bodily sensations (American Psychiatric Association 1980). Patients report that cognitions accompanying such attacks commonly concern ideas of going mad, having a heart attack or other acute medical emergency, or of losing control of their behaviour in such a way as to disgrace themselves (Beck, Laude and Bohnert 1974; Hibbert 1984). Panic attacks occur in both phobic and non-phobic anxiety states. In the former case, it has been argued that the fear of such panic attacks may be responsible for the avoidance behaviour which plays such a prominent part in agoraphobia (Goldstein and Chambless 1978).

Keywords

Depression Lactate Covariance Respiration Bicarbonate 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul M. Salkovskis
  • David M. Clark

There are no affiliations available

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