Advertisement

The Role of Limbic and Related Structures in the “Making” of Behavior: The Lessons from Animal Experimentation

  • W. P. Koella
Conference paper

Abstract

Proper recognition and interpretation of the behavioral symptoms characterizing seizures originating in, and often confined to, the various components of the limbic system is not possible without at least some insight into, and understanding of, the role played by these structures in the organization of behavior as a whole. Yet, before the mid-thirties, there was little evidence available about the physiology of Broca’s grand lobe limbique. It was eventually the pioneering work of Kltiver and Bucy (1937, 1939) that gave the impetus for an ever-expanding series of investigations that produced the evidence which enables us today to make at least some educated guesses, if not even some safe statements, about the physiological functions of this previously so mystical conglomeration of nuclei, fiber tracts, and cortical structures.

Keywords

Limbic System Hippocampal Lesion Limbic Structure Septal Lesion Behavioral Inhibitory System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamec RE (1976) Hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic substrates of predatory attack. Suppression and the influence of hunger. Brain Res 106: 57–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adey WR, Walter DO (1963) Application of phase detection and averaging techniques in computer analysis of EEG records in the cat. Exp Neurol 7: 186–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arbuthnott GW, Fuxe K, Ungerstedt U (1971) Central catecholamine turnover and self-stimulation behavior. Brain Res 27: 406–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Black AH, Nadel L, O’Keefe J (1977) Hippocampal function in avoidance learning and punishment. Psychol Bull 84: 1107–1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crow TJ (1972) A map of the rat mesencephalon for electrical self-stimulation. Brain Res 36: 265–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crow TJ (1977) The neuroanatomy of intracranial self-stimulation: a general catecholamine hypothesis. Neurosci Res Program Bull 15: 195–204Google Scholar
  7. Egger MD, Flynn JP (1963) Effects of electrical stimulation of the amygdala on hypothalamically elicited attack behavior in cats. J Neurophysiol 26: 705–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. German DC, Bowden DM (1974) Catecholamine systems as the neural substrate for intracranial self-stimulation: a hypothesis. Brain Res 73: 381–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goddard GV (1964) Functions of the amygdala. Psychol Bull 62: 89–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grastyán E, Karmos G (1962) The influence of hippocampal lesions on simple and delayed instrumental conditioned reflexes. In: Physiologie de l’Hippocampe. Colloques internationaux du Centre national de la Recherche Scientiflque. CNRS 107: 225–239Google Scholar
  11. Grastyán E, Lissak K, Madarasz I, Donhoffer H (1959) Hippocampal electrical activity during the development of conditioned reflexes. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 11: 409–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gray J, Feldon J, Rawlins JNP, Owen S, McNaughton N (1978) The role of the septohippocampal system and its noradrenergic afferents in behavioral responses to non-reward. In: Elliot K, WhelanJ (eds) Functions of the septo-hippocampal systems. Ciba foundation symposium 58 (new series). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 275–300Google Scholar
  13. Green JD, Clemente CD, de Groot J (1957) Rhinencephalic lesions and behavior in cats. J comp Neurol 108: 505–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hess WR (1949) Das Zwischenhirn. Schwabe, BaselGoogle Scholar
  15. Hunsperger RW (1956) Affektreaktionen auf elektrische Rezung im Hirnstamm der Katze. Helv Physiol Acta 14: 70–92Google Scholar
  16. Ito M, Olds J (1971) Unit activity during self-stimulation behavior. J Neurophysiol 34: 263–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jacobs BL, McGinty DJ (1972) Participation of the amygdala in complex stimulus recognition and behavioral inhibition: evidence from unit studies. Brain Res 36: 431–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jonason KR, Enloe NJ, Contrucci J, Meyer PM (1973) Effects of simultaneous and successive septal and amygdaloid lesions on social behavior of the rat. J Comp Physiol Psychol 83: 54–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaada BR (1951) Somato-motor, autonomic, and electrocorti- cographic responses to electrical stimulation of “rhinence-phalic” and other structures in primates, cat, and dog. Acta Physiol Scand 24 [Suppl 83]: 1–285Google Scholar
  20. Kaada BR, Rasmussen EW, Kveim O (1962) Impaired acquisition of passive avoidance behavior by subcallosal, septal, hypothalamic, and insular lesions in rats. J Comp Physiol Psychol 55: 661–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kawakami M, Terasawa E, Kimura F, Wakabayashi K (1973) Modulating effect of limbic structures on gonadotrophin release. Neuroendocrinology 12: 1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. King FA, Meyer PM (1958) Effects of amygdaloid lesions upon septal hyperemotionality in the rat. Science 128: 655–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kling A, Schwartz NB (1961) Effects of amygdalectomy on sexual behavior and reproductive capacity in the male rat. Fed Proc 20: 335Google Scholar
  24. Klüver H, Bucy PC (1937) “Psychic blindness” and other symptoms following bilateral temporal lobectomy in rhesus monkeys. Am J Physiol 119:352–353Google Scholar
  25. Klüver H, Bucy PC (1939) Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobe in monkeys. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 42: 979–1000Google Scholar
  26. Koella WP (1982 a) The functions of the limbic system evidence from animal experimentation. Adv Biol Psychiatry 8: 12–39Google Scholar
  27. Koella WP (1982 b) A modern neurobiological concept of vigilance. Experientia 38:426–437Google Scholar
  28. Koella WP (1984) The organization and regulation of sleep; a review of the experimental evidence and a novel integrated model of the organizing and regulating apparatus. Experientia 40: 309–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koella WP (1985) Local vigilance, the vigilance profile, and psychiatric disease; a new general theory on an old notion and its potential application in biological psychiatry. Integrative Psychiatry 3: 185–198Google Scholar
  30. Landfield PW (1977) Different effects of post-trial driving or blocking of the theta rhythm on avoidance learning in rats. Physiol Behav 18: 439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liberson WT, Akert K (1955) Hippocampal seizure in guinea pigs. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 7: 211–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. MacLean PD (1954) The limbic system and its hippocampal formation. Studies in animals and their possible application to man. J Neurosurg 11: 29–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. MacLean PD, Ploog DW (1962) Cerebral representation of penile erection. J Neurophysiol 25: 29–55Google Scholar
  34. Nauta WJH (1958) Hippocampal projections and related neural pathways to the mid-brain in the cat. Brain 81: 319–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Niki H (1967) Effects of hippocampal ablation on learning in the rat. Prog Brain Res 27: 305–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Keefe J, Black AH (1978) Single unit and lesion experiments on the sensory inputs to the hippocampal cognitive map. In: Elliot K, Whelan J (eds) Functions of the septo-hippocampal systems. Ciba foundation symposium 58 (new series). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 179–182Google Scholar
  37. O’Keefe J, Dostrovsky J (1971) The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain Res 34: 171–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Olds J, Milner P (1954) Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of the septal area and other regions of the rat brain. J Comp Physiol Psychol 47: 419–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Olton DS, Isaacson RL (1969) Fear, hippocampal lesions, and avoidance behavior. Commun Behav Biol 3: 259–262Google Scholar
  40. Olton DS, Walker JA, Gage FH (1978) Hippocampal connections and spatial discrimination. Brain Res 139: 295–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Orbach J, Milner B, Rasmussen T (1960) Learning and retention in monkeys after amygdala-hippocampus resection. Arch Neurol 3: 230–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Papez JW (1937) A proposed mechanism of emotion. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 38: 725–743Google Scholar
  43. Rolls T (1981) Processing beyond the inferior temporal visual cortex related to feeding, memory, and striatal function. In: Katzuki Y, Norgren R, Sato M (eds) Brain mechanisms of sensation. Wiley, New York, pp 241–269Google Scholar
  44. Rosvold HE, Mirsky AF, Pribram KH (1954) Influence of amygdalectomy on social behavior in monkeys. J Comp Physiol Psychol 47: 173–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Routtenberg A (1975) Intracranial self-stimulation: catecholamine brain pathways and memory consolidation. In: Cole J, Sonderegger E (eds) Nebraska symposium on motivation. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp 161–182Google Scholar
  46. Routtenberg A, Malsbury C (1969) Brainstem pathways of reward. J Comp Physiol Psychol 68: 22–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sawyer CH (1962) Triggering of the pituitary by the central nervous system. In: Bullock TH (ed) Physiological triggers. Waverly, Baltimore, pp 164–174Google Scholar
  48. Schmutz M, Btirki H, Koella WP (1981) Electrically induced hippocampal afterdischarge in the freely moving cat: an animal model of focal (possibly tempo Dam M, Gram L, Penry JK (eds) Advances in epileptology: XII epilepsy international symposium. Raven, New York, pp 59–65Google Scholar
  49. Schreiner L, Kling A (1956) Rhinencephalon and behavior. Am J Physiol 184: 486–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Siegel A, Edinger H, Dotto M (1975) Effects of electrical stimulation of the lateral aspects of the prefrontal cortex upon attack behavior in cats. Brain Res 93: 473–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stein L, Belluzzi JD (1979) Brain endorphins: possible role in reward and memory formation. Fed Proc 38: 2468–2472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Stein L, Wise CD (1969) Release of norepinephrine from hypothalamus and amygdala by rewarding medial forebrain bundle stimulation and amphetamine. J Comp Physiol Psychol 67: 189–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ursin H, Kaada BR (1960) Functional localization within the amygdaloid complex in the cat. Electroenceph Clin Neuro-physiol 12: 1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vergnes M, Karli P (1969) Effets de l’ablation des bulbes olfactifs et de l’isolement sur le developpement de l’aggressivite. interspecifique du rat. Soc Biol 163: 2704–2707Google Scholar
  55. Wise RA (1981) Intracranial self-stimulation: mapping against the lateral bounderies of the dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra. Brain Res 213: 190–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wise RS (1978) Catecholamine theories of reward: a critical review. Brain 152: 215–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wood CD (1958) Behavioral changes following discrete lesions of temporal lobe structures. Neurology 8: 215–220PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. P. Koella
    • 1
  1. 1.OberwilSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations