Advertisement

Cadmium pp 339-350 | Cite as

Immunotoxicity of Cadmium

Chapter
  • 191 Downloads
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 80)

Abstract

During the past decade, a number of chemicals and drugs have been shown to alter immune functions inadvertently in animals and human beings. In fact, the immune system has been shown to be exquisitely affected at low levels of exposure to certain environmental toxicants before any other toxicologic manifestations are evident. The perturbation of immune responses by exogenous chemicals and drugs is not surprising considering the complex nature and delicate balances controlling these reactions. These types of immunomodulating effects have led government agencies and private industry to consider the incorporation of immuno-toxicologic profiles into standard toxicologic assessment protocols for drugs and chemicals.

Keywords

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Japanese Encephalitis Virus Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection Mouse Spleen Cell Arch Environ Health 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baiter N, Kaweki ME, Gingold B, Gray I (1982) Modification of skin-graft rejection and acceptance by low concentrations of cadmium in drinking water of mice. J Toxicol Environ Health 10:433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berche P, Simonet M, Thevenin M, Fauchere JL, Prat JJ, Veron M (1980) Susceptibility of mice to bacterial infections after chronic exposure to cadmium. Ann Microbiol 131B:145–151Google Scholar
  3. Bouley G, Chaumard C, Quero A-M, Girard F, Bouden E (1982) Opposite effects of inhaled cadmium micropartieles on mouse susceptibility to an airborne bacterial and an airborne viral infection. Sci Total Environ 23:185–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bozelka BE, Burkholder PM (1979) Increased mortality of cadmium-intoxicated mice infected with the BCG strain of Mycobacterium bovis. J Reticuloendothel Soc 26:229–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bozelka BE, Burkholder PM, Chang LW (1978) Cadmium, a metallic inhibitor of anti-body-mediated immunity in mice. Environ Res 17:390–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castranova V, Bowman L, Reason M J, Miles PR (1980) Effects of heavy metal ions on selected oxidative metabolic processes in rat alveolar macrophages. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 53:14–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cay BS (1981) The effect of cadmium on lymphocyte transformation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 36:143–147Google Scholar
  8. Cook J A, Marconi EA, Diluzio NR (1974) Lead, cadmium, endotoxin interaction: effecton mortality and hepatic function. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 28:292–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cook J A, Hoffman EO, Diluzio NR (1975) Influence of lead and cadmium on the suscep-tibility of rats to bacterial challenge. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 150:741–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Exon JH, Patton NM, Koller LD (1975) Hexamitiasis in cadmium exposed mice. Arch En-viron Health 31:463–464Google Scholar
  11. Exon JH, Koller LD, Kerkvliet NI (1979) Lead-cadmium interaction: effect on viral-in-duced mortality and tissue residues in mice. Arch Environ Health 34:469–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Exon JH, Koller LD, Kerkvliet NI (1985) Tissue residues, pathology and viral-induced mortality in mice chronically 6exposed to different cadmium salts. J Environ Pathol Toxicol (in press)Google Scholar
  13. Fujimaki H, Murakami M, Kubota K (1982) In vitro evaluation of cadmium-induced alteration of the antibody response. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 62:288–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gainer JH (1977 a) Effects of heavy metals and of deficiency of zinc on mortality rates in mice infected with encephalomyocarditis virus. Am J Vet Res 38:869–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gainer JH (1977 b) Effects on interferon of heavy metal excess and zinc deficiency. Am J Vet Res 38:863–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gallagher KE, Gray I (1982) Cadmium inhibition on RNA metabolism in murine lymphocytes. J Immunopharmacol 3:339–361Google Scholar
  17. Gallagher K, Mattarazzo WJ, Gray I (1979) Trace metal modification of immunocompetence: II. Effect of Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ on RNA turnover, hexokinase activity, and blastogenesis during B lymphocyte transformation in vitro. Clin Immun Immunopathol 13:369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gaworski CL, Sharma RP (1978) The effects of heavy metals 3H-thymidine uptake in lymphocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 46:305–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Graham JA, Gardner DE, Water MD, Coffin DC (1975) Effect of trace metals on phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. Infect Immun 11:1278–1283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Graham J A, Miller FJ, Daniel MJ, Payne EA, Gardner DE (1978) Influence of cadmium, nickel, and chromium on primary immunity in mice. Environ Res 16:77–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gray I, Arrieh M, Baiter NJ (1982) Cadmium modification of the response in Balb/c mice to MOPC-104E tumor. Arch Environ Health 37:342–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Greenberg SR (1980) Fluorescent studies on the potential existence of vascular metallic immune complexes. Arch Environ Health 35:148–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hadley JG, Gardner DE, Coffin DL, Menzel DB (1977) Inhibition of antibody-mediated rosette formation by alveolar macrophages: a sensitive assay for metal toxicity. J Reticuloendothel Soc 22:417–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hill CH (1979) Dietary influences on resistance to Salmonella infection in chicks. Fed Proc 38:2129–2133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones RH, Williams RL, Jones AM (1971) Effects of heavy metals on the immune response. Preliminary findings for cadmium in rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 137:1231–1236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Joshi BC, Dwivedi C, Powell A, Holscher M (1981) Immune complex nephritis in rats in-duced by long term oral exposure to cadmium. J Comp Pathol 91:11–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kastelan M, Gerencer M, Kastelan A, Gamulin S (1981) Inhibition of mitogen and specific antigen-induced human proliferation by cadmium. Exp Cell Biol 49:15–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kerkvliet NI, Koller LD, Baecher LG, Brauner J A (1979) Effect of cadmium exposure on primary tumor growth and cell-mediated cytotoxicity in mice bearing MSB-6 sarcomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 63:479–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Stotzky G, Dickstein RA, Schwartz J (1981a) Influence of cadmium, lead, and zinc on the ability of guinea pig macrophages to interact with macrophage inhibitory factor. Environ Res 24:106–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Stotzky G, Likhite V, Schwartz J, Dickstein RA (1981b) Influence of cadmium, lead and zinc on the ability of sensitized guinea pig lymphocytes to interact with specific antigen and to produce lymphokines. Environ Res 24:96–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Knutson DW, Vredevoe DL, Aoki KR, Havs EJ, Levy L (1980) Cadmium and the reticuloendothelial system (RES): a specific defect in blood clearance of soluble aggregates of IgG by the liver in mice given cadmium. Immunology 40:17–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kojima A, Tamuar SI (1981) Acute effects of cadmium on delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 34:281–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Koller LD (1973) Immunosuppression produced by lead, cadmium and mercury. Am J Vet Res 34:1457–1458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Koller LD, Brauner JA (1977) Decreased B cell response after exposure to lead and cadmium. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 42:621–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koller LD, Roan JG (1977) Effects of lead and cadmium on mouse peritoneal macrophages. J Reticuloendothel Soc 21:7–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Koller LD, Roan JG (1980 a) Effects of lead, cadmium and methylmercury on immunological memory. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 4:47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Koller LD, Roan JG (1980 b) Response of lymphocytes from lead, cadmium and methyl-mercury-exposed mice in the mixed lymphocyte culture. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 4:393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Koller LD, Exon JH, Roan JG (1975) Antibody suppression by cadmium. Arch Environ Health 30:598–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Koller LD, Roan JG, Exon JH (1976) Humoral antibody response in mice after exposure to lead or cadmium. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 151:339–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Koller LD, Roan JG, Kerkvliet NI (1979) Mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes in CBA mice exposed to lead and cadmium. Environ Res 19:177–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lawrence DA (1981) Heavy metal modulation of lymphocyte activities. I. In vitro effects of heavy metals on primary humoral immune responses. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 57:439–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Loose LD, Silkworth JB, Warrington D (1977) Cadmium-induced depression of the respiratory burst in mouse pulmonary alveolar macrophages, peritoneal macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 79:326–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Loose LD, Silkworth JB, Simpson DW (1978 a) Influence of cadmium on the phagocytic and microbial activity of murine peritoneal macrophages, pulmonary alveolar macrophages, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Infect Immun 22:378–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Loose LD, Silkworth JB, Warrington D (1978 b) Cadmium-induced phagocyte cytotoxic-ity. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 20:582–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Muller S, Gillert K-E, Krause CH, Jautzke G, Gross U, Diamantstein T (1978) Effects of cadmium on the immune system of mice. Experentia 35:909–910Google Scholar
  46. Nelson DJ, Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Stotzky G (1982) Effects of cadmium, lead and zinc on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity toward tumor cells. Environ Res 28:154–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ohsawa M, Kawai K (1981) Cytological shift in lymphocytes induced by cadmium in mice and rats. Environ Res 24:192–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shenker BJ, Matarazzo WJ, Hirsch RL, Gray I (1977) Trace metal modification of immunocompetence. I. Effect of trace metals in the cultures on in vitro transformation of B lymphocytes. Cell Immunol 34:19–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Suzuki M, Simizu B, Yabe S, Oya A, Seta H (1981) Effect of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mice. I. Acute and single dose exposure experiments. Toxicol Lett 9:231–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vigliani EC (1969) The biopathology of cadmium. J Am Ind Hyg Assoc 30:329Google Scholar
  51. Yamada YK, Shimizu F, Kawamure R, Kubota K (1981) Thymic atrophy in mice induced by cadmium administration. Toxicol Lett 8:49–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations