Cadmium pp 33-74 | Cite as

Cadmium in the Environment and its Entry into Terrestrial Food Chain Crops

Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 80)


Cadmium (Cd) is regarded by many as one of the most toxic trace elements in the environment. The increased emissions from production, use, and waste disposal combined with long-term persistence in the environment, and its relatively rapid uptake and accumulation by food chain crops contribute to its potentially hazardous nature. Cadmium originating from different sources may find its way to parts of the human population through food and beverages, drinking water, air, and cigarette smoking. Although acute Cd toxicity caused by food consumption is rare, chronic exposure to high Cd levels in food could significantly increase the accumulation of Cd in certain body organs. When the concentration in the human body reaches levels considered to be harmful (> 200 μg per gram wet weight in the renal cortex; Kjellstrom and Nordberg 1978), cadmium-induced kidney damage, skeletal disorders, as well as other diseases may result.


Heavy Metal Sewage Sludge Cadmium Concentration Average Daily Intake Municipal Sewage Sludge 
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