Cadmium pp 1-31 | Cite as

The Estimation of Cadmium in Biological Samples

Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 80)


Cadmium has a relatively low abundance in nature (the Clarke number is 5 × 10−5), but it has long been known because it is easily extracted from its ores. Although cadmium minerals are scarcely found in nature, it occurs widely by isomorphous replacement of zinc in sphalerite (Zn, Fe)S, which usually coexists with galena PbS. This substitution is due to the similar chemical properties of Zn and Cd, both in group lib. Zinc and lead are commonly recovered simultaneously by a blast furnace method. Cadmium is invariably a by-product and is usually separated from zinc by distillation or by precipitation from sulfate solutions by inc dust. The reaction corresponds to the following equation
$$\text{Zn} + \text{Cd}^{2 + }= \text{Zn}^{2 + }+ \text{Cd}\,\,\,\,\,E =+ 0.36\,\text{V}.$$


Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Half Wave Potential Hollow Cathode Lamp Isotope Dilution Method Analyte Element 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

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