Cooperative Phenomena in Biological Motion

  • J. A. S. Kelso
  • J. P. Scholz
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 31)


The production of a “simple” utterance, such as the syllable /ba/, involves the cooperation of a large number of neuromuscular elements operating on different time scales, e.g., at respiratory, laryngeal, and supralaryngeal levels. Yet somehow, from this huge dimensionality, /ba/ emerges as a coherent and well-formed pattern. Similarly, were one to count the neurons, muscles, and joints that cooperate to produce the “simple” act of walking, literally thousands of degrees of freedom would be involved. Yet again, somehow walking emerges as a fundamentally low-dimensional cyclical pattern—in the language of dynamical systems, a periodic attractor. In physics, an infinite dimensional system, described by a complicated set of partial, nonlinear differential equations can be reduced—when probed experimentally or analyzed theoretically—to a low-dimensional description [1,2]. In all these cases, it seems, information about the system is compressed—from a microscopic basis of huge dimensionality—to a macroscopic basis of low dimensionality.


Biological Motion Symmetrical Mode First Dorsal Interosseous Temporal Coherence Step Cycle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    I. Procaccia, this volume.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Shaw: in Order and Chaos in Nature, ed. by H. Haken (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1981)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Haken: Rev. Mod. Phys. 47, 67 (1975)MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Haken: Synergetics: An Introduction (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1983)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.A.S. Kelso and B. Tuller: in Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience, ed. by M. S. Gazzaniga (Plenum Press, New York 1984)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. Weisskopf: Frontiers and Limits of Science (Alexander von Humboldt, Stiftung, Marz 1984)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    N.A. Bernstein: The Coordination and Regulation of Movements (Pergamon Press, London 1967)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.A.S. Kelso, B. Tuller, E. V.-Bateson and C.A. Fowler: J. Exp. Psych. 10, 812 (1984)Google Scholar
  9. 8a.
    J.A.S. Kelso, B. Tuller, E. V.-Bateson and C.A. Fowler: Hum. Perc. Perf. 10, 812 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    G.M. Edelman, and V.B. Mountcastle: The Mindful Brain (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1978)Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    M.M. Merzenich and J.H. Kaas: Trends Neurosci. 5, 434 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    J.A.S. Kelso: in Attention and Performance (IX), ed. by J. Long and A. Baddeley (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ 1981)Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    S. Grillner: Physiol. Rev. 55, 247 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    M.L. Shik and G.N. Orlovskii: Physiol. Rev. 56, 465 (1976)Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    D.C. Shapiro and R.A. Schmidt: in The Development of Movement Control and Coordination, ed. by J.A.S Kelso and J. Clark (Wiley, New York 1982)Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    B. Tuller, J.A.S. Kelso and K. Harris: J. Exp. Psych.: Hum. Perc. Perf. 8, 460 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    B. Tuller and J.A.S. Kelso: J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1030 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    J.A.S. Kelso and B. Tuller: J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl. 1 77, S53 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    J.A.S. Kelso and B. Tuller: in Sensory and Motor Processes in Language, ed. by E. Keller and M. Gopnik (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ in press)Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    E. von Hoist: in The Behavioral Physiology of Animals and Man: The Collected Papers of Erich von Holst (Univ. of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Fl 1937/1973)Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    M.A. Sleigh and D.I. Barlow: in Aspects of Animal Locomotion, ed. by H.Y. Elder and E.R. Trueman (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, London, New York, Sydney 1980)Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    T.A. Easton: Amer. Sci. 60, 591 (1972)ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    C.A. Fowler: Timing Control in Speech Production (Indiana University Linguistics Club, Bloomington, IN 1977)Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    J.A.S. Kelso, D.L. Southard and D. Goodman: Sci. 203, 1029 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    M.T. Turvey: in Perceiving, Acting and Knowing: Toward an Ecological Psychology, ed. by R. Shaw and J. Bransford (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ 1977)Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    W.A. MacKay: Trends Neurosci. 3, 97 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    S. Grillner: Sci. 228, 143 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    T.H. Bullock: in Simple Networks and Behavior, ed. by J.D. Fentress (Sinauer Assoc, Sunderland, MA 1976)Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    T.H. Bullock: in Information Processing in the Nervous System, ed. by H.M. Pinsker and W.D. Willis (Raven Press, New York 1980)Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    A.I. Selverston: Behav. Brain Sci. 3, 535 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    G.E. Loeb and W.B. Marks: Behav. Brain Res. 3, 556 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    J.A.S. Kelso, K.G. Holt, P.N. Kugler and M.T. Turvey: in Tutorials in Motor Behavior, ed. by G.E. Stelmach and J. Requin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, New York 1980)Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    P.N. Kugler, J.A.S. Kelso and M.T. Turvey: in Tutorials in Motor Behavior, ed. by G.E. Stelmach and J. Requin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, New York 1980)Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    M.L. Shik, F.V. Severin and G.N. Orlovskii: Biophys. 11, 1011 (1966)Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    D.F. Hoyt and C.R. Taylor: Nature 292, 239 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    J.A.S. Kelso: Am. J. Physiol.: Reg. Integr. Comp. 246, R1000 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    H. Haken, J.A.S. Kelso and H. Bunz: Biol. Cyber. 51, 347 (1985)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    J. Yamanishi, M. Kawato and R. Suzuki: Biol. Cyber. 37, 219 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    H.-J. Freund: Physiol. Rev. 63, 387 (1983)Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Synergetics of the Brain, ed. by E. Basar, H. Flohr, H. Haken and A. J. Mandell (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1983)Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    L. Janos: Smithsonian 14, 127 (1983)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. S. Kelso
    • 1
  • J. P. Scholz
    • 1
  1. 1.Haskins LaboratoriesNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations